Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F)
Dissimilatory sulfate reduction plays an important role in removal of dissolved metals from acidic mine waters. Although this process was convincingly shown to occur in acidic waste of metal recovery, few isolates of acid-tolerant sulfate rducers are known. We isolated a new acidophilic sulfidogen, strain BG, from the oxidized acidic waste of the Bom-Gorkhon tungsten deposit, Transbaikalia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence made it possible to identify it as a member of the genus Desulfosporosinus. Unlike other known acidophilic sulfate reducers of this genus, strain BG was tolerant to high copper concentrations (up to 5 g/L), could grow on organic acids at low ambient pH, and formed crystalline copper sulfides (covellite and chalcopyrite). Molecular analysis of the phenotypes predominating in oxidized waste and in enrichment cultures confirmed the presence of various Desulfosporosinus strains.
Presented are the results of antioxidant status of inhabitants of Yakutia. The intensity of lipid peroxydation depends on professional factors: influence of the quartz dust and smoking. Miners and smokers have high concentration of malonil dialdegide in blood. The SOD and catalase levels did not statistically depend on sex and nationality, but increased in miners and smokers. Insufficiency of vitamins C, A and E combined with immunoglobulins deviations. It should be noticed that country-people have more deviations in vitamin and immune status than towns-people.
Based on a multidimensional discriminant analysis of the clinical and physiological characteristics derived as a result of examination of 593 miners, classification functions were plotted, allowing the diagnosis of vibratory disease in the automatic mode by means of mathematic computations. Functional indicators of skin sensitivity, particularly vibratory, dynamometry, rheovasography and thermography of the hand and fingers, a "white spot" symptom, and characteristics derived on a mathematic analysis of heart rhythm were established to be informative for automated diagnosis. The diagnosis was found to be more accurate in case of using a two-stage variant of the discriminant analysis where the differentiation is first made between healthy workers and workers with a pathology, followed by the discrimination of the preclinical and clinical phase of the disease. The automated diagnostic system is demonstrated to compare very favourably with the conventional method of diagnosis.
The authors studied benz(a)pyrene-specific secretory and serum antibody ratios (Ka) in 249 workers of the Kemerovo Power Station, by applying their modified enzyme immunoassay technique. There were 37 (20.5%) and 4 (5.8%) cases with Ka >2 at the preset immunoassay parameters of the 180 and 69 workers of mainline production and auxiliary units, respectively. A Ka value of >2 was found in 35 (21.6%) of the 162 males and only in 6 (6.9%) of the 87 females of the whole sample, in 29 (26.1%) of the 111 smokers and in 12 (8.7%) of the 138 non-smokers. The technique is proposed to study specific immune reactions and exposure to carcinogens primarily in workers of the enterprises processing coal and other types of fuel.
Characteristics, frequency and distribution of vertebrogenic diseases involving cervico-brachial region were studied in more than 1,000 miners from asian North and East exposed to vibration. The data were compared with the results of examination of drivers. The investigation revealed a high level of vertebrogenic cervical pain and cervico-brachial pain in miners with a long length of service, especially in those suffering from vibration disease and frequent osteochondrosis manifestation in younger age, especially in subjects working beyond the Polar Circle. Occupational hazards are proved to play a leading role in the early development of vertebrogenic diseases, and vibration disease predisposes to such pathology. The results make possible to consider the vertebrogenic cervical pain and cervico-brachial pain as occupational diseases in young-aged workers with long length of service or evaluate such diseases as complications of vibration disease in individuals facing this occupational pathology.