The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
The authors represented integral evaluation of sanitary and epidemiologic well-being of people residing in coal miner towns. This evaluation plays an important role in formation of general including children's, occupational and infectious morbidity.
Structure and modules of computer informational-analytical system "Electronic atlas of Russia" is presented, the object of mapping in this system is epidemiology of socially significant infectious diseases. Systemic information on processes of emergence and spread of socially significant infectious diseases (anthroponoses, zoonoses and sapronoses) in the population of Russian Federation is presented in the atlas. Detailed electronic maps of country territory filled with prognosis-analytical information created by using technological achievements of mathematic and computer modeling of epidemics and outbreaks of viral and bacterial infections are of particular interest. Atlas allows to objectively evaluate the pattern of infection spread, prepare prognoses of epidemic and outbreak developments taking into account the implementation of control measures (vaccination, prophylaxis, diagnostics and therapy) and evaluate their economic effectiveness.
The research purpose is an estimation of influence of the bauxite dust on the state of the bronchopulmonary system of workers. It has been indicated that exposure of the poor fibrogenic dust while the process of the bauxite ore extraction, results in development of pnevmokoniosis characterized by substantial ventilatory and haemodynamic disorders limiting the workability of patients.
The authors studied changes in several laboratory values of coal miners in Russian Federation, defined information value of these changes and suggested complex of methods for early preclinical diagnosis of negative effects caused by coal dust in the miners. Dust-related respiratory diseases were proved to develop by stages on molecular level.
Examinations were made in 220 male workers exposed to dust-gas (low-silicon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon oxide) mixture, physical exercises, and cooling microclimate on deep-mined output of copper-nickel ore. Twenty-eight per cent of the workers were found to have evolving chronic bronchitis that did not substantially affect the patients' working capacity; 3.2% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.4% had asthma that had developed before the onset of professional activity. 32.3% of the examinees were ascertained to have individual clinicofunctional disorders that permit their identification as a bronchopulmonary disease risk group to carry out early preventive and rehabilitative measures.
Radioactive contamination and population exposure resulted from the operation of the Mayak complex, a plutonium-production facility in the Southern Urals. The highest doses were received by residents along the Techa River into which wastes from the complex leaked between 1949 and 1956. A registry was established containing data on 29,528 persons and information on deaths (9426 by 1982; 6439 death certificates) and cancer cases. Six groups differing in exposure levels were set up for the cohort analysis. The range of doses to red bone marrow in these cohorts was from 1.64 to 0.176 Sv. Leukaemia and solid cancer mortality over the 33-year period of exposure was analysed. The age-standardized total cancer mortality rates and their 95% confidence intervals account for 140 (131-150) and 105 (101-109) per 100,000 person-years for the entire exposed and entire control population. The analysis of cancer mortality in different organs has shown increased rates for leukaemia in one exposed group and for cancers of the uterine corpus and cervix in the other exposed group, as compared to the identical control groups.
The article contains evaluation of physical and chemical properties of mine aerosol in mines using self-propelled diesel devices, information on the aerosol and exhaust gases components concentrations in the workplace air. Dispersed phase of the aerosol is presented by mineral and organic components, mineral and soot particles absorb gaseous exhaust components. Feature of occupational pulmonary diseases in highly-mechanized mine workers is toxic dust affection of bronchi, mostly with asthmatic course and chronic obstructive type of respiratory dysfunction, relatively short-term disease development.