The authors represented experience of contemporary activities of Occupational center in Rostov region, demonstrated efficiency of thorough medical examinations carried by mobile clinical and diagnostic laboratories, suggested 4-levels structure of occupational service organization.
Trace metal composition of winter snowpack, snow-melt filter residues and top-soil samples were determined along three transects through industrial towns in the Usa basin, North-East Russia: Inta, Usinsk and Vorkuta. Snow was analysed for Ag, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn using ICP-MS (Ca and K by F-AAS for Vorkuta only), pH and acidity/alkalinity. Filter residues were analysed for: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn using F-AAS and GF-AAS; top-soil samples were analysed for Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn using F-AAS. Results indicate elevated concentrations of elements associated with alkaline combustion ash around the coal mining towns of Vorkuta and Inta. There is little evidence of deposition around the gas and oil town of Usinsk. Atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Vorkuta, and to a lesser extent Inta, added significantly to the soil contaminant loading as a result of ash fallout. Acid deposition was associated with pristine areas whereas alkaline combustion ash near to emission sources more than compensated for the acidity caused by SO2.
A comprehensive approach has been developed to the assessment of composition and properties of atmospherically deposited dust in the area affected by a copper smelter. The approach is based on the analysis of initial dust samples, dynamic leaching of water soluble fractions in a rotating coiled column (RCC) followed by the determination of recovered elements and characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a RCC. Three separated size fractions of dust (2 µm) were characterized by static light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, whereupon the fractions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS (after digestion). It has been evaluated that toxic elements, which are characteristics for copper smelter emissions (As, Cu, Zn), are accumulated in fraction >2 µm. At the same time, up to 2.4, 3.1, 8.2, 6.7 g/kg of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, correspondently, were found in nanoparticles (2 µm, or the bulk sample. It may be assumed that Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, Tl compounds are adsorbed onto the finest dust particles as compared to As, Cu, Zn compounds, which are directly emitted from the copper smelter as microparticles.
The measurement of radon flux from soil surface is the useful tool for the assessment of radon-prone areas and monitoring of radon releases from uranium mining and milling residues. The accumulation chambers with hollow headspace and chambers with activated charcoal are the most used devices for these purposes. Systematic errors of the measurements strongly depend on the geometry of the chamber and diffusion coefficient of the radon in soil. The calibration system for the attestation of devices for radon flux measurements was constructed. The calibration measurements of accumulation chambers and chambers with activated charcoal were conducted. The good agreement between the results of 2D modelling of radon flux and measurements results was observed. It was demonstrated that reliable measurements of radon flux can be obtained by chambers with activated charcoal (equivalent volume ~75 l) or by accumulation chambers with hollow headspace of ~7-10 l and volume/surface ratio (height) of >15 cm.
Relation between the risk of lung cancer and combined home and work indoor radon exposure was studied on the example of the population of Lermontov town (Stavropol Region, Russia). The town is situated in the former uranium mining area. Case (121 lung cancer cases) and control (196 individuals free of lung cancer diagnosis) groups of the study included both ex-miners and individuals that were not involved in the uranium industry. Home and work radon exposures were estimated using archive data as well as contemporary indoor measurements. The results of our study support the conclusion about the effect of radon exposure on the lung cancer morbidity.
Siliceous dust during hypobaric hypoxia under the conditions of high mountains causes a rapid onset of silicosis in miners. Nodular silicosis types are prevalent. Lower activity of antioxidative protective enzymes and activated free radical oxidation and autoimmune responses are detectable.