The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) in 617 workers at a base metal mine in northern Ontario. Workers who were employed at the mine between the years 1989 and 1994 and who continued to live within a 100 km radius of the mine were sent a self-reported questionnaire to identify individuals with possible vibration-induced symptoms in their upper extremities. Of the 162 workers who attended the medical examination, 50% were diagnosed with HAVS, 26% had other diagnoses with some workers having multiple afflictions e.g., both HAVS and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). No vibration-induced symptoms were reported in 35% of the workers who were clinically normal. The study was designed to educate, advise, and to make recommendations on the prevention of HAVS. Ongoing commitments to technological improvements, mandatory and regular rest periods, and continuing educational sessions on the syndrome should help to reduce the prevalence of this disease.
Miners engaged into open-cast and underground extraction of copper-nickel ores in Kolsky Transpolar area have chronic bronchitis as a main nosologic entity among chronic bronchopulmonary diseases (19.1% of the workers). Considerably lower (4.0% of the workers) occurrence concerns chronic obstructive lung disease and bronchial asthma, both developed before the occupational involvement (1.3% of the workers). Complex of occupational and nonoccupational risk factors is connected mostly with smoking that increases COLD/CB risk 10.7-15.8-fold.
Examinations were made in 220 male workers exposed to dust-gas (low-silicon dioxide, nitric oxides, and carbon oxide) mixture, physical exercises, and cooling microclimate on deep-mined output of copper-nickel ore. Twenty-eight per cent of the workers were found to have evolving chronic bronchitis that did not substantially affect the patients' working capacity; 3.2% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1.4% had asthma that had developed before the onset of professional activity. 32.3% of the examinees were ascertained to have individual clinicofunctional disorders that permit their identification as a bronchopulmonary disease risk group to carry out early preventive and rehabilitative measures.
The article contains evaluation of physical and chemical properties of mine aerosol in mines using self-propelled diesel devices, information on the aerosol and exhaust gases components concentrations in the workplace air. Dispersed phase of the aerosol is presented by mineral and organic components, mineral and soot particles absorb gaseous exhaust components. Feature of occupational pulmonary diseases in highly-mechanized mine workers is toxic dust affection of bronchi, mostly with asthmatic course and chronic obstructive type of respiratory dysfunction, relatively short-term disease development.
The authors studied distribution of biochemical markers for HP, GC, EsD, AcP genes, polymorphism of GSTT1 (GST-theta 1), GSTM1 (GST-mu 1), locus WNTR of NOS3 gene (alleles A/B) in chronic dust bronchitis patients and in apparently healthy individuals. Genotypes EsD 1-2 and AcP bb individuals were proved to be most prone to the disease. Endogenous resistent factors for chronic dust bronchitis are genotypes GC 1-1, EsD 1-1, AcP bc.
Studies covered structure and frequency of dislipoproteinemia in coal miners,the authors demonstrated correlation of etiologic factors and role of occupational factor in atherogenic dislipoproteinemia development. SCORE system helped to assess individual overall risk of fatal cardiovascular diseases development in miners.
Here, we report first results on the development of computational health information technology for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risks in Russia based on data of the large-scale ongoing population survey in Health Centers (HCs). The technology involve algorithms for automated raw data process and generation of joint database, tools for data standardization and visualization, the assessment of risks, and other components. The data on physical status of Russians, including height, weight, and BMI are provided and compared with Belgian (1835), Swiss (2002), and US (1988-1994) reference datasets. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity in 5-85 years-old Russians according to the conventional WHO criteria was found to be high (18.9% in males and 26.7% in females) and varied significantly across federal subjects of Russia thus suggesting an importance of the Russian NCDs risks monitoring system for planning and evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic measures.
Using Doppler technologies, the authors studied blood flow in carotid and vertebral basillary systems of brain circulation, in orbital and central retinal arteries among workers of major occupations in ore mining and processing enterprise, who are subjected to occupational hazards complex. Workers with length of service over 20 years appeared to have stenosis and occlusion of medial cerebral artery and basillary artery.
'McIntyre Powder' (finely ground aluminium and aluminium oxide) was used as a prophylactic agent against silicotic lung disease between 1944 and 1979 in mines in northern Ontario. To find out whether the practice produced neurotoxic effects a morbidity prevalence study was conducted between 1988 and 1989. There were no significant differences between exposed and non-exposed miners in reported diagnoses of neurological disorder; however, exposed miners performed less well than did unexposed workers on cognitive state examinations; also, the proportion of men with scores in the impaired range was greater in the exposed than non-exposed group. Likelihood of scores in the impaired range increased with duration of exposure. The findings are consistent with putative neurotoxicity of chronic aluminium exposure.