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The 1891-1920 birth cohort of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: development from 1904 and mortality to 1992.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210233
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1997 Jan;41(1):13-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
F D Liddell
A D McDonald
J C McDonald
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University Montreal, Canada.
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1997 Jan;41(1):13-36
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Asbestos, Serpentine - adverse effects
Asbestosis - etiology - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Male
Mesothelioma - etiology - mortality
Mining - statistics & numerical data
Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Quebec - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper draws together the mortality experience for a cohort of some 11000 male Quebec Chrysotile miners and millers, reported at intervals since 1971 and now again updated. Of the 10918 men in the complete cohort, 1138 were lost to view, almost all never traced after employment of only a month or two before 1935; the other 9780 men were traced into 1992. Of these, 8009 (82%) are known to have died: 657 from lung cancer, 38 from mesotheliona, 1205 from other malignant disease, 108 from pneumoconiosis and 561 from other non-malignant respiratory diseases (excluding tuberculosis). After early fluctuations. SMRs (all causes) against Quebec rates have been reasonably steady since about 1945. For men first employed in Asbestos, mine or factory, they were very much what might have been expected for a blue collar population without any hazardous exposure. SMRs in the Thetford Mines area were almost 8% higher, but in line with anecdotal evidence concerning socio-economic status. At exposures below 300 (million particles per cubic foot) x years, (mpcf.y), equivalent to roughly 1000 (fibres/ml) x years-or, say, 10 years in the 1940s at 80 (fibres/ml)-findings were as follows. There were no discernible associations of degree of exposure and SMRs, whether for all causes of death or for all the specific cancer sites examined. The average SMRs were 1.07 (all causes), and 1.16, 0.93, 1.03 and 1.21, respectively, for gastric, other abdominal, laryngeal and lung cancer. Men whose exposures were less then 300 mpcf.y suffered almost one-half of the 146 deaths from pneumoconiosis or mesothelioma; the elimination of these two causes would have reduced these men's SMR (all causes) from 1.07 to approximately 1.06. Thus it is concluded from the viewpoint of mortality that exposure in this industry to less than 300 mpcf.y has been essentially innocuous, although there was a small risk or pneumoconiosis or mesothelioma. Higher exposures have, however, led to excesses, increasing with degree of exposure, of mortality from all causes, and from lung cancer and stomach cancer, but such exposures, of at least 300 mpcf.y, are several orders of magnitude more severe than any that have been seen for many years. The effects of cigarette smoking were much more deleterious than those of dust exposure, not only for lung cancer (the SMR for smokers of 20+ cigarettes a day being 4.6 times higher than that for non-smokers), but also for stomach cancer (2.0 times higher), laryngeal cancer (2.9 times higher), and-most importantly-for all causes (1.6 times higher).
Notes
Comment In: Ann Occup Hyg. 1997 Jan;41(1):3-129072948
Comment In: Ann Occup Hyg. 2001 Jun;45(4):329-35; author reply 336-811414250
PubMed ID
9072947 View in PubMed
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[Accumulation of heavy metals in biologic materials of mining workers and of nearby population].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176713
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2004;(11):38-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
M A Mukasheva
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2004;(11):38-40
Date
2004
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Catchment Area (Health)
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - metabolism
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
PubMed ID
15636126 View in PubMed
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All-time releases of mercury to the atmosphere from human activities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129775
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Dec 15;45(24):10485-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2011
Author
David G Streets
Molly K Devane
Zifeng Lu
Tami C Bond
Elsie M Sunderland
Daniel J Jacob
Author Affiliation
Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States. dstreets@anl.gov
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Dec 15;45(24):10485-91
Date
Dec-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Atmosphere - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Mining - statistics & numerical data
Power Plants - statistics & numerical data
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Pollution, Chemical - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is critical for explaining the presence of mercury in remote regions of the world, such as the Arctic and the Himalayas, as well as local concentrations. While we have good knowledge of present-day fluxes of mercury to the atmosphere, we have little knowledge of what emission levels were like in the past. Here we develop a trend of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from 1850 to 2008-for which relatively complete data are available-and supplement that trend with an estimate of anthropogenic emissions prior to 1850. Global mercury emissions peaked in 1890 at 2600 Mg yr(-1), fell to 700-800 Mg yr(-1) in the interwar years, then rose steadily after 1950 to present-day levels of 2000 Mg yr(-1). Our estimate for total mercury emissions from human activities over all time is 350 Gg, of which 39% was emitted before 1850 and 61% after 1850. Using an eight-compartment global box-model of mercury biogeochemical cycling, we show that these emission trends successfully reproduce present-day atmospheric enrichment in mercury.
Notes
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Jun 1;36(11):2303-1012075781
Cites: Chemosphere. 2002 Jul;48(1):51-712137057
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Jan 1;37(1):22-3112542286
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2003 Dec;5(6):935-4914710936
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Sep 1;40(17):5312-816999104
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Mar 15;45(6):2042-721355558
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Aug 15;42(16):5971-718767653
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Apr 15;43(8):2983-819475981
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 2;106(22):8830-419451629
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Apr 15;44(8):2918-2420345131
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Nov 15;44(22):8574-8020973542
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Nov 15;41(22):7632-818075067
PubMed ID
22070723 View in PubMed
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An inventory of historical mercury emissions in maritime canada: implications for present and future contamination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197892
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 22;256(1):39-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-22-2000
Author
E M Sunderlan
G L Chmura
Author Affiliation
School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. ems@sfu.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 22;256(1):39-57
Date
Jun-22-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Forecasting
Fossil Fuels
Humans
Industry
Mercury - analysis
Mining
Refuse Disposal
Abstract
Mercury is a longstanding concern in Maritime Canada due to high levels of contamination in a number of fish and bird species. The recycled component of past releases of anthropogenic mercury may be a significant source of ongoing pollution in many areas. Historical information on mercury releases can be used to quantify past and present anthropogenic contamination. We present an inventory of historical mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in Maritime Canada for the years 1800-1995. Long-term trends in mercury emissions and the significance of the cumulative burden of mercury released from local sources are discussed. Emissions are calculated using both historical monitoring data and the application of emission factors. The nature of current anthropogenic sources of mercury is quite different than it was several decades ago when many of the existing policies governing mercury pollution were created. Our inventory illustrates that many of the most significant sources in the past such as the chlor-alkali industry, paint containing mercury additives, and pharmaceuticals, have been largely phased out with fossil fuel combustion and waste disposal remaining as the most significant modern sources. Atmospheric emissions in Maritime Canada peaked in 1945 (> 1,750 kg year-1), and again between 1965 and 1970 (> 2,600 kg year-1). Cumulative releases of mercury from anthropogenic sources for the years 1800-1995 were between 115 and 259 t to the atmosphere alone, and 327-448 t when discharges to wastewater and effluents were included. Assuming that only 0.2% (Nriagu, 1994.) of these releases become part of the recycled fraction of current fluxes, we estimate that between 570 and 900 kg Hg year-1 is deposited in Maritime Canada from past anthropogenic sources. Modern sources within Maritime Canada contribute at least 405 kg year-1 to the total annual deposition of 1.71 t over the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, leaving approximately 735 kg year-1 from natural sources and long-range contamination. Further study is needed to verify these estimates and clarify the significance of natural and long-range sources of mercury in Maritime Canada.
PubMed ID
10898386 View in PubMed
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Application of a weight of evidence approach to evaluating risks associated with subsistence caribou consumption near a lead/zinc mine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292188
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Apr 01; 619-620:1340-1348
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-01-2018
Author
Michael R Garry
Scott S Shock
Johanna Salatas
Jim Dau
Author Affiliation
Exponent, Center for Health Sciences, 15375 SE 30th Place, Suite 250, Bellevue, WA, USA. Electronic address: mgarry@exponent.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2018 Apr 01; 619-620:1340-1348
Date
Apr-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lead
Meat - analysis
Mining
Reindeer
Risk Assessment - methods
Zinc
Abstract
Overland transport of ore concentrate from the Red Dog lead/zinc mine in northwest Alaska to its seaport has historically raised concerns among local subsistence users regarding the potential impacts of fugitive dust from the operation, including the potential uptake of metals into caribou meat. Caribou are an integral part of life for northern Alaska Natives for both subsistence and cultural reasons. The Western Arctic caribou herd, whose range includes the Red Dog mine, transportation corridor, and port site, sometimes overwinter in the vicinity of mine operations. A weight of evidence approach using multiple lines of evidence was used to evaluate potential risks associated with subsistence consumption of caribou harvested near the road and mine. Data from a long-term caribou monitoring program indicate a lack of consistent trends for either increasing or decreasing metals concentrations in caribou muscle, liver, and kidney tissue. Lead, cadmium, and zinc from all tissues were within the range of reference concentrations reported for caribou elsewhere in Northern Alaska. In addition, a site use study based on data from satellite-collared caribou from the Western Arctic Herd showed that caribou utilize the area near the road, port, and mine approximately 1/20th to 1/90th of the time assumed in a human health risk assessment conducted for the site, implying that risks were significantly overestimated in the risk assessment. The results from multiple lines of evidence consistently indicate that fugitive dust emissions from Red Dog Operations are not a significant source of metals in caribou, and that caribou remain safe for human consumption.
PubMed ID
29734611 View in PubMed
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Arsenic mobility and characterization in lakes impacted by gold ore roasting, Yellowknife, NWT, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292468
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:630-641
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-2018
Author
Martin D Van Den Berghe
Heather E Jamieson
Michael J Palmer
Author Affiliation
Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Queen's University, 36 Union St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada; Department of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, 3651 Trousdale Pkwy, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. Electronic address: mdvanden@usc.edu.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar; 234:630-641
Date
Mar-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arsenic - analysis
Arsenicals - analysis
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Gold
Lakes - analysis
Mining
Oxides - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
The controls on the mobility and fate of arsenic in lakes impacted by historical gold ore roasting in northern Canada have been examined. A detailed characterization of arsenic solid and aqueous phases in lake waters, lake sediments and sediment porewaters as well as surrounding soils was conducted in three small lakes (80 wt%) of arsenic is contained in the form of secondary sulphide precipitates, with iron oxy-hydroxides hosting a minimal amount of arsenic (
PubMed ID
29223820 View in PubMed
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The assessment of exposure in terms of fibres.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217636
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1994 Aug;38(4):477-87, 409-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
G W Gibbs
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1994 Aug;38(4):477-87, 409-10
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine - adverse effects
Asbestosis
Canada
Dust
Environmental monitoring
Great Britain
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology
Mining
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Textile Industry
United States
Abstract
The membrane filter (MF) method for evaluating asbestos fibre concentrations was introduced in the 1960s. Before that time the midget impinger (MI) was used in North America, while the long running (LRTP) and regular thermal precipitator (TP) were used in the U.K. All studies from which estimates of long-term health risks can be derived (i.e. those with individual cumulative lifetime exposure estimates) were based on the now obsolete methods. The reliability of converting these indices of exposure to MF equivalent concentrations was reviewed. It was concluded that no overall single factor could be derived for the Quebec mining and milling industry. However, it has been possible to derive conversion factors at the individual mill and work area level. Applying these in one Quebec mortality study analysis based on all jobs held by persons in the cohort gave an overall MF/MI ratio of 3.6. An examination of the confidence intervals surrounding the Quebec data, ratios derived for other chrysotile mines by other investigators, and measurements of fibre concentrations in the 1970s suggest that this was probably not unreasonable. Side-by-side and other measurements were used to convert MI concentrations in the U.S. textile industry to MF fibre concentrations. While conversions involve considerable uncertainty, independent measurements of fibres in the lung tissues of workers from the U.S. textile plant and Quebec mills show that in lungs the ratios of the concentrations of chrysotile to those of tremolite are quite consistent with the ratio of assessed exposures to these fibres in the two industries. There is an apparently higher risk of mesothelioma in one Quebec mining area (Thetford Mines) than in another (Asbestos). A high concentration of fibrous tremolite has been found in the lungs of workers in Thetford. A method of evaluating the extent to which mesothelioma risk in the chrysotile mining industry might be explained by tremolite exposures was proposed. The slope of the lung cancer dose-response relationship for the textile industry is approximately 50 times that for the mining and milling industry. Available data on the length distributions of fibres from Quebec mines and mills (up to 5% > 5 microns) and the Charleston textile plant (up to 21% > 5 microns) and some marginal indication of longer fibres in tissues from Charleston workers suggest that further work specifically addressing differences in the size distributions of long fibres in these industries is needed.
PubMed ID
7978969 View in PubMed
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Bioaccumulation of Tl in otoliths of Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus) from the Athabasca River, upstream and downstream of bitumen mining and upgrading.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296068
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 10; 650(Pt 2):2559-2566
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-10-2019
Author
William Shotyk
Beatriz Bicalho
Chad W Cuss
Iain Grant-Weaver
Andrew Nagel
Tommy Noernberg
Mark Poesch
Nilo R Sinnatamby
Author Affiliation
Bocock Chair for Agriculture and the Environment, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, 348B South Academic Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H1, Canada. Electronic address: shotyk@ualberta.ca.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 10; 650(Pt 2):2559-2566
Date
Feb-10-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animals
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Fishes - metabolism
Hydrocarbons
Mining
Otolithic Membrane - chemistry
Rivers
Thallium - metabolism
Trace Elements - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - metabolism
Abstract
It has been suggested that open pit mining and upgrading of bitumen in northern Alberta releases Tl and other potentially toxic elements to the Athabasca River and its watershed. We examined Tl and other trace elements in otoliths of Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), a non-migratory fish species, collected along the Athabasca River. Otoliths were analyzed using ICP-QMS, following acid digestion, in the metal-free, ultraclean SWAMP laboratory. Compared to their average abundance in the dissolved (
PubMed ID
30373047 View in PubMed
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Characteristics of mining-ecological monitoring of environmental objects changing under the influence of toxic waste tailing dump ("Solnechny GOK" Company).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131744
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2012 May;184(5):2775-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Lyudmila Timofeevna Krupskaya
Marina Borisovna Bubnova
Valentina Pavlovna Zvereva
Alexandr Valerjevich Krupskiy
Author Affiliation
Far Eastern Department of RAS, Mining Institute, Khabarovsk, Russia. eco@igd.khv.ru
Source
Environ Monit Assess. 2012 May;184(5):2775-81
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Hazardous Waste - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Mining
Plant Infertility - drug effects
Plants - drug effects
Pollen - drug effects
Refuse Disposal
Risk assessment
Russia
Abstract
The article considers the characteristics of mining-ecological monitoring of environmental objects changing under the influence of toxic waste tailing dump (OAO "Solnechny GOK" Company).
PubMed ID
21881900 View in PubMed
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Characterization of occupational exposure to air contaminants in modern tunnelling operations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267836
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 Aug;58(7):818-29
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Berit Bakke
Bente Ulvestad
Yngvar Thomassen
Torill Woldbaek
Dag G Ellingsen
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 Aug;58(7):818-29
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Carbon - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - analysis
Likelihood Functions
Mining
Norway
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Quartz - analysis
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Workplace
Abstract
Personal air measurements of aerosols and gases among tunnel construction workers were performed as part of a 11-day follow-up study on the relationship between exposure to aerosols and gases and cardiovascular and respiratory effects.
Ninety tunnel construction workers employed at 11 available construction sites participated in the exposure study. The workers were divided into seven job groups according to tasks performed. Exposure measurements were carried out on 2 consecutive working days prior to the day of health examination. Summary statistics were computed using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the procedure NLMIXED and LIFEREG in SAS was used to perform MLE for repeated measures data subject to left censoring and for calculation of within- and between-worker variance components.
The geometric mean (GM) air concentrations for the thoracic mass aerosol sub-fraction, a-quartz, oil mist, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) for all workers were 561, 63, 210, 146, and 35.2 µg m(-3), respectively. Statistical differences of air concentrations between job groups were observed for all contaminants, except for OC, EC, and ammonia (P > 0.05). The shaft drillers, injection workers, and shotcreting operators were exposed to the highest GM levels of thoracic dust (7061, 1087, and 865 µg m(-) (3), respectively). The shaft drillers and the support workers were exposed to the highest GM levels of a-quartz (GM = 844 and 118 µg m(-3), respectively). Overall, the exposure to nitrogen dioxide and ammonia was low (GM = 120 and 251 µg m(-) (3), respectively).
Findings from this study show significant differences between job groups with shaft drilling as the highest exposed job to air concentrations for all measured contaminants. Technical interventions in this job should be implemented to reduce exposure levels. Overall, diesel exhaust air concentrations seem to be lower than previously assessed (as EC).
PubMed ID
24902863 View in PubMed
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30 records – page 1 of 3.