The contributors review the peculiarities of modelling the labour regimen for the vibration-affected professions in the North-West, based on the dosage-related approach, inasmuch as the existing techniques of ore deposits elaboration (chamber-long face and magnification of ore), and the organization of pit works on cyclogrammes, did not allow a practical application of the labour regimen recommendations proposed by the USSR Ministry of Health.
Studies of drilling and blasting method of copper and nickel ores extraction at underground Transpolar mines proved that the highest concentrations of dust appeared during dry drilling of vertical blast holes, work of scraper windlass, fragmentation of out-size blocks, preparation of concrete mixture. Presence of aggressive metals, especially nickel, in the ore dust is a main base for planned thorough investigations of fibrogenic, toxic and carcinogenic effects of copper and nickel ore dust, for more precise assessment of its MAC in the air of workplace. Two-step purification of exhaust gases appearing due to mining diesel machines is not quite efficient, as the concentrations of nitrogen oxides (assessed through nitrogen dioxide) continually exceeded the MAC.
Premorbid condition represented by slightly expressed signs caused by vibration was studied in miners of northern mines and showed the absence of clear clinical manifestations in comparison with the vibration disease. Functional studies showed the disordered skin sensors, peripheral hemodynamics and muscles of the disordered skin sensors, peripheral hemodynamics and muscles of the upper limb: decreased distal blood flow rate in the upper limbs, lowered static endurance of the forearm muscles. Statistic and discriminative analysis helped to differ the groups of miners with preclinical and clinical manifestations of vibration disease by means of using the functional parameters.
A study of all episodes of medical contact in a one year period was performed. 19% of the episodes required sick leave. In all groups the employees single contact due to obligatory medical certificates in case of absence were prevalent. Persons with a seniority of more than five years had about 50% more medical contacts. The threshold for medical contact in Greenlanders was lower probably due to a higher number of women and to the acculturative stress. A higher frequency of episodes of illness among leading managers and other executives in the top of the hierarchy and absence of occupational diseases and injuries were characteristic of this group of employees.
Up-to-date work conditions of open extraction of gold in Far North are characterized by some occupational hazards, among which noise and vibration are leaders. In severe climate conditions heat state of the workers was considered exceeding the allowable standards. The authors suggest recommendations to normalize working environment of the enterprises under study.