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Cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285596
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2016 Apr;66(3):241-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
M. Huvinen
E. Pukkala
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2016 Apr;66(3):241-6
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cause of Death
Chromium Alloys - adverse effects
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Metallurgy
Mining
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Respiration Disorders - chemically induced - mortality
Risk factors
Stainless Steel - adverse effects
Wounds and Injuries - etiology - mortality
Abstract
Although stainless steel has been produced for more than a hundred years, exposure-related mortality data for production workers are limited.
To describe cause-specific mortality in Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel workers.
We studied Finnish stainless steel production chain workers employed between 1967 and 2004, from chromite mining to cold rolling of stainless steel, divided into sub-cohorts by production units with specific exposure patterns. We obtained causes of death for the years 1971-2012 from Statistics Finland. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) as ratios of observed and expected numbers of deaths based on population mortality rates of the same region.
Among 8088 workers studied, overall mortality was significantly decreased (SMR 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84), largely due to low mortality from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.81). In chromite mine, stainless steel melting shop and metallurgical laboratory workers, the SMR for circulatory disease was below 0.4 (SMR 0.33; 95% CI 0.07-0.95, SMR 0.22; 95% CI 0.05-0.65 and SMR 0.16; 95% CI 0.00-0.90, respectively). Mortality from accidents (SMR 0.84; 95% CI 0.67-1.04) and suicides (SMR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.91) was also lower than in the reference population.
Working in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry appears not to be associated with increased mortality.
Notes
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Comment In: Arch Environ Occup Health. 2016 Jul 3;71(4):187-827230506
PubMed ID
26655692 View in PubMed
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Four cases of mesothelioma among Finnish anthophyllite miners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218702
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1994 Mar;51(3):212-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1994
Author
A. Karjalainen
L O Meurman
E. Pukkala
Author Affiliation
Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1994 Mar;51(3):212-5
Date
Mar-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Asbestos, Amphibole - adverse effects
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mesothelioma - etiology - mortality
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure
Time Factors
Abstract
Four cases of mesothelioma in a cohort of 999 Finnish anthophyllite miners and millers are described. Three deaths were due to pleural mesothelioma and one to peritoneal mesothelioma among the total of 503 male deaths up to 1991. All four patients with mesothelioma had had long term (13 to 31 years) exposure in anthophyllite mining and milling. The latency time from the onset of employment until diagnosis was 39 to 58 years. All four patients were smokers or ex-smokers and had asbestosis. In three of the cases the pulmonary fibre concentration and fibre type were analysed by transmission electron microscopy. High concentrations (270 to 1100 million fibres/g dry tissue) of anthophyllite fibres were detected. The anthophyllite fibres were thicker and had lower aspect ratios than the values reported for crocidolite fibres retained in the lungs of patients with mesothelioma.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8130852 View in PubMed
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Incidence of cancer among anthophyllite asbestos miners in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218071
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1994 Jun;51(6):421-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1994
Author
L O Meurman
E. Pukkala
M. Hakama
Author Affiliation
University of Turku, Department of Pathology, Finland.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 1994 Jun;51(6):421-5
Date
Jun-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Amphibole - adverse effects
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mining
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure
Risk factors
Abstract
A cohort of 736 male and 167 female workers of two anthophyllite mines in Finland was followed up through the Finnish Cancer Registry for cancer in 1953-91. Compared with the total cancer incidence of the east Finnish population, the men had a raised risk of total cancer (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4-1.9), mainly attributable to an excess in lung cancer (SIR 2.8; 95% CI 2.2-3.6). The risk of lung cancer was somewhat higher among workers classified as heavily exposed (SIR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.1) than among those moderately exposed (SIR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.6) and the risk increased with increasing smoking and with increasing time of work with exposure. There were four cases of mesothelioma v 0.1 expected, all in men who smoked and had had a long and heavy asbestos exposure. Among women, a non-significant excess in total cancer (SIR 1.5; 95% CI 0.9-2.4) was found in the subgroup with heavy exposure to asbestos. Anthophyllite asbestos seems to have high potency in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer and low potency in carcinogenesis of mesothelioma in comparison with the other types of asbestos.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8044235 View in PubMed
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Small area estimation of incidence of cancer around a known source of exposure with fine resolution data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195023
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2001 May;58(5):315-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
E. Kokki
J. Ranta
A. Penttinen
E. Pukkala
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, PO Box 95, FIN-70701 Kuopio, Finland. Esa.Kokki@ktl.fi
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2001 May;58(5):315-20
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asbestos - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Mining
Registries
Risk factors
Small-Area Analysis
Abstract
To describe the small area system developed in Finland. To illustrate the use of the system with analyses of incidence of lung cancer around an asbestos mine. To compare the performance of different spatial statistical models when applied to sparse data.
In the small area system, cancer and population data are available by sex, age, and socioeconomic status in adjacent "pixels", squares of size 0.5 km x 0.5 km. The study area was partitioned into sub-areas based on estimated exposure. The original data at the pixel level were used in a spatial random field model. For comparison, standardised incidence ratios were estimated, and full bayesian and empirical bayesian models were fitted to aggregated data. Incidence of lung cancer around a former asbestos mine was used as an illustration.
The spatial random field model, which has been used in former small area studies, did not converge with present fine resolution data. The number of neighbouring pixels used in smoothing had to be enlarged, and informative distributions for hyperparameters were used to stabilise the unobserved random field. The ordered spatial random field model gave lower estimates than the Poisson model. When one of the three effects of area were fixed, the model gave similar estimates with a narrower interval than the Poisson model.
The use of fine resolution data and socioeconomic status as a means of controlling for confounding related to lifestyle is useful when estimating risk of cancer around point sources. However, better statistical methods are needed for spatial modelling of fine resolution data.
Notes
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PubMed ID
11303080 View in PubMed
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