Ores extraction in Tyrnaouz tungsten-molybdenum pool is conducted in specific climate and geologic conditions that considerably influence aimbient dust levels in open pit and mining workplaces, levels of exhaust, radioactive and explosive gases and lower those levels to the MACs or below. With regular mining equipment used, noise and vibration levels are the same as at other open pits. The stated occupational hazards could induce vibration disease and deafness in the workers.
The clinical and hygienic studies performed at the antimonite ore extraction mines in Yakutia revealed that the workers were exposed to high concentrations of polymetallic dusts, containing chromium dioxide, antimony, arsenic and their compounds. 11% of the workers exhibited dust bronchitis, changes in the blood and immune reactivity indices which were due to reactions of adaptation to the Far North climatic conditions and the occupational factors' toxic effects.
Up-to-date work conditions of open extraction of gold in Far North are characterized by some occupational hazards, among which noise and vibration are leaders. In severe climate conditions heat state of the workers was considered exceeding the allowable standards. The authors suggest recommendations to normalize working environment of the enterprises under study.
The authors studied morbidity with transitory disablement among miners of open and deep mines. The morbidity parameters appeared to differ reliably between deep miners and open-cut miners. The morbidity structure is demonstrated. The authors revealed strong direct correlation between the morbidity parameters and intensity of occupational hazards in the mine.
Changes in the epidemiology, morphology and clinical picture of active anthracotic tuberculosis within the last 20 years referred to an increase in the average age of the patients and the length of service under dust conditions. Among the patients with anthracotic tuberculosis the number of drufters increased while the number of coal cutters and breakage face workers decreased. There was observed a rise in the proportion of infiltrative tuberculosis and tuberculomas of the lungs with a simultaneous decrease in the proportion of fibrocavernous tuberculosis. At present the process of active anthracotic tuberculosis is more favourable. The percentage of extended forms of anthracotic tuberculosis decreased.
Workers engaged into subsurface extraction of sand containing gold were proved to work in difficult conditions characterized by stable negative temperatures, high concentrations of dust, elevated levels of noise and vibration. The drill operators demonstrated extremely unfavorable changes of physiologic processes within a shift. Those changes were compromised cardiovascular regulation, early occurrence and intensive progress of fatigue. The authors provide recommendations to normalize the work conditions and to create rational scheme of work and rest for the occupations.