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Carcinoma of the lung in Ontario gold miners: possible aetiological factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225366
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1991 Dec;48(12):808-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
R A Kusiak
J. Springer
A C Ritchie
J. Muller
Author Affiliation
Health and Safety Studies Unit, Ontario Ministry of Labour, Toronto, Canada.
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1991 Dec;48(12):808-17
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - etiology - mortality
Arsenic - adverse effects
Canada
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung - etiology - mortality
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell - etiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Geological Phenomena
Geology
Gold
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Nickel
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Radon - adverse effects
Smoking - adverse effects
Time Factors
Abstract
A cohort of 54,128 men who worked in Ontario mines was observed for mortality between 1955 and 1986. Most of these men worked in nickel, gold, or uranium mines; a few worked in silver, iron, lead/zinc, or other ore mines. If mortality that occurred after a man had started to mine uranium was excluded, an excess of carcinoma of the lung was found among the 13,603 Ontario gold miners in the study (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 129, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 115-145) and in men who began to mine nickel before 1936 (SMR 141, 95% CI 105-184). The excess mortality from lung cancer in the gold miners was confined to men who began gold mining before 1946. No increase in the mortality from carcinoma of the lung was evident in men who began mining gold after the end of 1945, in men who began mining nickel after 1936, or in men who mined ores other than gold, nickel, and uranium. In the gold mines each year of employment before the end of 1945 was associated with a 6.5% increase in mortality from lung cancer 20 or more years after the miner began working the mines (95% CI 1.6-11.4%); each year of employment before the end of 1945 in mines in which the host rock contained 0.1% arsenic was associated with a 3.1% increase in lung cancer 20 years or more after exposure began (95% CI 1.1-5.1%); and each working level month of exposure to radon decay products was associated with a 1.2% increase in mortality from lung cancer five or more years after exposure began (95% CI 0.02-2.4%). A comparison of two models shows that the excess of lung cancer mortality in Ontario gold miners is associated with exposure to high dust concentrations before 1946, with exposure to arsenic before 1946, and with exposure to radon decay products. No association between the increased incidence of carcinoma of the lung in Ontario gold miners and exposure to mineral fibre could be detected. It is concluded that the excess of carcinoma of the lung in Ontario gold miners is probably due to exposure to arsenic and radon decay products.
Notes
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PubMed ID
1663386 View in PubMed
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Mortality from lung cancer in Ontario uranium miners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220235
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Oct;50(10):920-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1993
Author
R A Kusiak
A C Ritchie
J. Muller
J. Springer
Author Affiliation
Health and Safety Studies Unit, Ontario Ministry of Labour.
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Oct;50(10):920-8
Date
Oct-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arsenic - adverse effects
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality - pathology
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - pathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Radon - adverse effects
Risk factors
Smoking
Uranium - adverse effects
Abstract
Mortality from lung cancer was greater in Ontario uranium miners than in the general male population of Ontario (observed = 152, expected = 67.6, standardised mortality ratio 225, 95% confidence interval 191-264). Part of the excess of lung cancer may be because the proportion of men who are smokers or have smoked is greater in uranium miners than in Ontario men. Smoking does not explain the whole excess. Mortality from lung cancer in Ontario uranium miners is clearly related to exposure to short lived radon progeny. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from the same degree of exposure to short lived radon progeny is greatest five to 14 years after exposure and less subsequently. It is greater in men under the age of 55 years and less in older men. Part of the excess of lung cancer mortality in Ontario uranium miners is probably also due to exposure to arsenic that occurred earlier in gold mines. In Ontario uranium miners, the lung cancer mortality from exposure to arsenic increases as the intensity of exposure to short lived radon progeny increases. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the risk of lung cancer from exposure to arsenic is enhanced by exposure to other carcinogens. In Ontario uranium miners, the proportion of lung cancers that are small cell carcinomas is greater than in the general population. The proportion of small cell carcinomas is especially great five to 14 years after exposure to short lived radon progeny and in men who die from lung cancer at younger ages.
Notes
Cites: J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988 Nov 2;80(17):1404-73172266
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1989 Dec;46(12):881-62611163
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1991 Dec;48(12):808-171663386
Cites: Cancer. 1981 Mar 1;47(5):1042-66261919
Cites: Cancer. 1977 Apr;39(4):1647-55192433
Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 Nov;120(5):1025-9228572
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1991 Nov;95:157-891821370
PubMed ID
8217852 View in PubMed
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Mortality from stomach cancer in Ontario miners.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221779
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Feb;50(2):117-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1993
Author
R A Kusiak
A C Ritchie
J. Springer
J. Muller
Author Affiliation
Health and Safety Studies Unit, Ontario Ministry of Labour.
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Feb;50(2):117-26
Date
Feb-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Gold
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupational Exposure
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Stomach Neoplasms - mortality
Time Factors
Abstract
An excess of mortality from stomach cancer has been found in Ontario gold miners (observed (obs) 104, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 152, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 125-185) and no excess of stomach cancer could be detected in other miners in Ontario (obs 74, SMR 102, 95% CI 80-128). The excess of stomach cancer appeared five to 19 years after the miners began gold mining in Ontario. In that interval, similar patterns of excess mortality from stomach cancer were found in miners born in north America (obs 14, SMR 268, CI 147-450) and in miners born outside north America (obs 12, SMR 280, 95% CI 145-489). Twenty or more years after the miners began mining gold, an excess of mortality from stomach cancer was found in gold miners born outside of north American (obs 41, SMR 160, 95% CI 115-218) but not in gold miners born in north America (obs 37, SMR 113, 95% CI 80-156). The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 (obs 45, SMR 167, 95% CI 122-223) seems larger than the excess in gold miners between the ages of 60 and 74 (obs 59, SMR 143, 95% CI 109-184). Exposures to arsenic, chromium, mineral fibre, diesel emissions, and aluminium powder were considered as possible explanations of the excess of stomach cancer in Ontario gold miners. Exposure to diesel emissions and aluminium powder was rejected as gold miners and uranium miners were exposed to both agents but an excess of stomach cancer was noted only in gold miners. The association between the excess of stomach cancer and the time since the miner began mining gold suggested that duration of exposure to dust in gold mines ought to be weighted according to the time since the exposure to dust occurred and that an appropriate time weighting function would be one in the interval five to 19 years after each year of exposure to dust and zero otherwise. A statistically significant association between the relative risk of mortality from stomach cancer and the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines was found in miners under the age of 60. Time weighted indices of exposure to chromium and arsenic were formed for each gold miner by time weighting the product of the duration of exposure to dust in a gold mine and the percentages of arsenic and chromium in rocks in that gold mine. Exposure to mineral fibre was measured in terms of the time weighted duration of employment in those gold mines that contain mineral fibre. A statistically significant association between the excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 and the time weighted index of exposure to chromium occurred and not association was found between the excess of stomach cancer and either the time weighted duration of employment in mines containing mineral fibre. The excess of stomach cancer in gold miners under the age of 60 was better associated with the time weighted index of exposure to chromium than to the time weighted duration of exposure to dust in gold mines. Although the number of cases of gastric cancer that were classified according to the system of Lauren was small, the data suggest that for miners under the age of 60, exposure to chromium is associated with the development of the intestinal rather than the diffuse type of gastric cancer.
Notes
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1979 Aug;36(3):199-205315411
Cites: Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand. 1965;64:31-4914320675
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1984 Feb 15;130(4):399-4056692236
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1984 May;41(2):179-826562903
Cites: J Occup Med. 1985 Jul;27(7):507-174032088
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1986 Jun;43(6):363-733718880
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1986 Oct;43(10):677-843778838
Cites: J Occup Med. 1987 Sep;29(9):762-83681511
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Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jul;128(1):64-733381836
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Cites: Cancer Res. 1990 May 1;50(9):2569-762328485
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1990 Oct;47(10):665-762223659
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1991 May 30;48(3):369-742040530
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1991 Dec;48(12):808-171663386
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1981 Nov;38(4):378-807317301
PubMed ID
8435344 View in PubMed
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Tentative explanatory variable of lung dust concentration in gold miners exposed to crystalline silica.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205025
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Jul-Sep;8(3):375-98
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Dufresne
P. Loosereewanich
R. Bégin
C. Dion
D. Ecobichon
D C Muir
A C Ritchie
G. Perrault
Author Affiliation
McGill University, Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, Montréal, Québec, Canada. cydu@musica.mcgill.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1998 Jul-Sep;8(3):375-98
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Gold
Humans
Lung - pathology
Lung Neoplasms - pathology
Male
Mining
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Ontario
Quartz - adverse effects
Silicon Dioxide - adverse effects
Silicosis - etiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The first objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between quantitative lung mineral dust burdens, dust exposure history, and pathological fibrosis grading in silicotic workers. The second objective was to evaluate the association between particle size parameters, concentration of retained silica particles and the severity of the silicosis. Sixty-seven paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples of silicotic patients were analyzed. The cases of silicosis included 39 non-lung cancer patients and 28 patients with lung cancer. All of the cases were gold miners in the Province of Ontario, Canada.
Particles, both angular and fibrous, were extracted from lung parenchyma by a bleach digestion method, mounted on copper microscopic grids by a carbon replica technique, and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Quartz concentration was also determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) on a silver membrane filter after the extraction from the lung parenchyma.
Total particles, silica, clay, and quartz also increase in concentration with increased age at death, although the trends are not statistically significant. Quartz concentration has a statistically significant correlation with the silicosis severity score (r = +0.45, p
PubMed ID
9679218 View in PubMed
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