We examined the role of the environment in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). A group of 42 parkinsonians have been compared with a group of 84 matched controls. The epidemiological study (1987-1989) covered the territory of the Community Health Department of Valleyfield, in southern Quebec (Canada). Odds ratio adjusted for age and sex were calculated for seven environmental factors. A decreased risk for PD was associated with residence in rural areas (OR: 0.31; p less than or equal to 0.05) and residence near industry or mining (OR: 0.15; p less than or equal to 0.05). An increased risk for PD seems to be associated with occupational exposure to the three metals Mn, Fe and Al (OR: 2.28; p = 0.07) especially when the duration of exposure is longer than 30 years (OR: 13.64; p less than or equal to 0.05). Other environmental factors not found to be associated with PD were: pesticides manipulation, farm work, industrial work and well water consumption.
To determine if using a combination of hospital administrative data and ambulatory care physician billings can accurately identify patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we tested 9 algorithms for identifying individuals with CHF from administrative data.
The validation cohort against which the 9 algorithms were tested combined data from a random sample of adult patients from EMRALD, an electronic medical record database of primary care physicians in Ontario, Canada, and data collected in 2004/05 from a random sample of primary care patients for a study of hypertension. Algorithms were evaluated on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, area under the curve on the ROC graph and the combination of likelihood ratio positive and negative.
We found that that one hospital record or one physician billing followed by a second record from either source within one year had the best result, with a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 97.0%.
Population prevalence of CHF can be accurately measured using combined administrative data from hospitalization and ambulatory care.
This article demonstrates how enterprise intelligence systems can be used to improve operational efficiency in hospitals. Enterprise intelligence systems mine raw data from disparate systems and transform the data into actionable information, which when used appropriately, support streamlined processes, optimize resources, and positively affect staff efficiency and the quality of patient care. Case studies on the implementation of McKesson Performance Visibility and Capacity Planner enterprise intelligence solutions at the Southlake Regional Health Centre and Lions Gate and Richmond Hospitals are provided.
Radon is a natural radioactive gas, with worldwide distribution, deriving from uranium decay products, which can be inhaled, weather in mining condition (extraction and management of uranium ores) or in domestic condition (in some high risk homes or geographic areas). The main epidemiologic studies on uranium mining workers have all confirmed an excess in relative risk of primary lung cancer. Epidemiologic studies on indoor exposure suggest a role of radon in the genesis of a certain number of primary lung cancer, although these results remain controversial and need to be confirmed. An overview of the main actual problems related to this bronchial carcinogen is presented in this paper.
Relations between blood pressure and cigarette smoking were investigated on the basis of a health survey conducted in a population of 3034 mine workers from Quebec Province. Blood pressure was found to be lower among smokers than among non-smokers, the difference between these two groups being: systolic pressure 2.3 mmHg, diastolic pressure 3.0 mmHg. After adjustment for age and bodyweight this relation persisted but only as far as diastolic pressure was concerned. The prevalence of hypertension was 1.5 times higher in non-smokers than in smokers. On the other hand, the number of cigarette-smoking years and the number of cigarettes smoked per day seemed to have little effect on mean arterial pressure.