Relation between the risk of lung cancer and combined home and work indoor radon exposure was studied on the example of the population of Lermontov town (Stavropol Region, Russia). The town is situated in the former uranium mining area. Case (121 lung cancer cases) and control (196 individuals free of lung cancer diagnosis) groups of the study included both ex-miners and individuals that were not involved in the uranium industry. Home and work radon exposures were estimated using archive data as well as contemporary indoor measurements. The results of our study support the conclusion about the effect of radon exposure on the lung cancer morbidity.
Population-based administrative registers could be used for identifying heart failure (HF) cases. However, the validity of the classification obtained from administrative registers is not known.
The validity of HF diagnoses obtained by record linkage of administrative databases in Finland was assessed against classification by three independent physicians.
Data from the nationwide registers in Finland - the Hospital Discharge Register, Causes of Death Register, Drug Reimbursement Register, and pharmacy prescription data - were linked with the FINRISK 1997 survey data. Cases with hospitalizations before the survey date with HF as one of the discharge diagnoses, cases with special reimbursement for HF drugs before the survey date and cases with the use of furosemide before the survey date were classified as HF in the registers. All these cases, cases with baseline brain natriuretic peptide > 100 pg/ml, and cases with use of digoxin were independently assessed by two physicians as HF/no HF. Discrepant cases were solved by a third physician. This classification was considered as the gold standard, against which the registers were assessed.
The specificity of the registers was 99.7% (95% CI 99.5-99.8%), positive predictive value 85.9% (95% CI 79.7-90.5%), negative predictive value 97.9% (95% CI 97.6-98.2%), and sensitivity 48.5% (95% CI 42.9-54.2%).
Classification obtained from administrative registers has high specificity and can be used in follow-up studies with HF as an end point. Sensitivity is modest and administrative data should be used with caution for surveillance.
Despite the importance of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis (MS), methods for comorbidity assessment in MS are poorly developed.
We validated and applied administrative case definitions for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in MS.
Using provincial administrative data we identified persons with MS and a matched general population cohort. Case definitions for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were derived using hospital, physician, and prescription claims, and validated in 430 persons with MS. We examined temporal trends in the age-adjusted prevalence of these conditions from 1984-2006.
Agreement between various case definitions and medical records ranged from kappa (?) =0.51-0.69 for diabetes, ? =0.21-0.71 for hyperlipidemia, and ? =0.52-0.75 for hypertension. The 2005 age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was similar in the MS (7.62%) and general populations (8.31%; prevalence ratio [PR] 0.91; 0.81-1.03). The age-adjusted prevalence did not differ for hypertension (MS: 20.8% versus general: 22.5% [PR 0.91; 0.78-1.06]), or hyperlipidemia (MS: 13.8% versus general: 15.2% [PR 0.90; 0.67-1.22]). The prevalence of all conditions rose in both populations over the study period.
Administrative data are a valid means of tracking diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in MS. The prevalence of these comorbidities is similar in the MS and general populations.
Narratives are critical to how people understand themselves and the significant events of their lives. Drawing upon social memory theory and the social constructionist approach to social problems, this study provides a narrative analysis of the counter-memory activism of the Westray Families Group (WFG), which formed after 26 men died in the 1992 Westray mine explosion (Plymouth, NS). Against alternative explanations promoted by more powerful stakeholders, the WFG adopted and weaved a corporate negligence narrative into their commemorative activism. This study illustrates how a small families group can draw reflexively upon and reshape cultural scripts to narrate how others should remember and respond to key events.
In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel.
We performed a systematic review to identify established and proposed environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence, created an assessment questionnaire tool regarding these environmental exposures, and applied this questionnaire among 114 participants from the communities of Timiskaming and Peel.
We found that tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, residential use of organochlorine pesticides, and potential exposure to toxic metals were dominant factors among Timiskaming respondents. We found significant differences regarding active smoking, chronic alcohol use, reported indoor and outdoor household pesticide use, and gold and silver mining in the Timiskaming region.
This study, the first to assess environmental factors in the Timiskaming community, identified higher reported exposures to tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, and mining in Timiskaming when compared with Peel. These significant findings highlight the need for specific public health assessments and interventions regarding community environmental exposures.
Few ecotoxicological studies exist for rare earth elements (REEs), particularly field-based studies on their bioaccumulation and food web dynamics. REE mining has led to significant environmental impacts in several countries (China, Brazil, U.S.), yet little is known about the fate and transport of these contaminants of emerging concern. Northern ecosystems are potentially vulnerable to REE enrichment from prospective mining projects at high latitudes. To understand how REEs behave in remote northern food webs, we measured REE concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?15N, ?13C) in biota from marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems of the eastern Canadian Arctic (N = 339). Wildlife harvesting and tissue sampling was partly conducted by local hunters through a community-based monitoring project. Results show that REEs generally follow a coherent bioaccumulation pattern for sample tissues, with some anomalies for redox-sensitive elements (Ce, Eu). Highest REE concentrations were found at low trophic levels, especially in vegetation and aquatic invertebrates. Terrestrial herbivores, ringed seal, and fish had low total REE levels in muscle tissue (?REE for 15 elements
The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different working conditions on the health of 1523 copper-nickel miners of the Kola High North. The low degree of mechanization of mining operations was established to be related to more higher levels of vibration, noise and physical overloads. The working in such conditions, when compared with high mining mechanization, leads to a decrease in the number of conditionally healthy workers (12% and 20.7%, p
This cross-sectional questionnaire study was carried out at 4 open-pit mines in Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. The aim has been to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms between drivers of mining vehicles and non-drivers.
The mine workers were asked whether they had suffered from any musculoskeletal symptoms during the previous 12 months in specified body regions, and to grade the severity of these symptoms during the past month. They were also asked about their daily driving of mining vehicles.
The questionnaire was completed by 1323 workers (757 vehicle drivers) and the reported prevalence and severity of symptoms were highest for the lower back, followed by pain in the neck, shoulder and upper back. Drivers in the Nordic mines reported fewer symptoms than non-drivers, while for Russian mine workers the results were the opposite of that. The daily driving of mining vehicles had no significant association with the risk of symptoms. Female drivers indicated a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male drivers.
The study provided only weak support for the hypothesis that drivers of vehicles reported a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than non-vehicle drivers. There were marked differences in the prevalence of symptoms among workers in various enterprises, even though the nature of the job tasks was similar. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):553-564.