The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.
Two hundred ml of milk were obtained from a lactating Stejneger's beaked whale stranded at Ninilchik, Alaska on 21 Oct, 1980. Total solids (41%) were similar to values reported for sperm and belukha whales, while fat (17%) was half as great and crude protein (17%) was 2-4 times greater than in milk of these species. Lactose was not detected. Calcium (0.22%) was greater than reported for pigmy sperm whales but less than for blue whales. Phosphorus (0.07%) was less than for any of the above species. Sodium and potassium concentrations were 0.13% and 0.11%, respectively. Values (microgram/g) for other elements analyzed (magnesium, 42; iron, 35; copper, 2.6; zinc, 1.5; manganese, 0.3; selenium, 0.36) have not been reported for whale milk. Based on SDS-gel electropherograms, this whale milk did not contain a whey protein corresponding to cattle milk alpha-lactalbumin. A blue-green pigment in the milk was identified as biliverdin.
1) Two Jersey cows were fed during 90 days with contaminated hay harvested in the South-East of France and containing about 5500 Bq/kg of dry matter (134 Cs + 137 Cs). A plateau was observed in milk 15 days and in meat 50-60 days after the beginning of the contamination. The transfer coefficients were at that time 1.1% for the milk and 2-2.7% for the meat. A calf was fed from the 8th day after birth until the 80th day solely with the contaminated milk from the two cows. At that time and weighing 130 kg it retained more than 40% of the ingested caesium. From the 44th till the 80th day the daily intake of milk was constant: in these conditions the transfer coefficient to meat was 16%. 2) Transfer coefficients to milk and thyroid were determinated in three Friesian cows contaminated daily with Na131I in pellets, one month before and two months after calving; one more lactating cow was contaminated for one month, 5 months after calving. The parturition provokes a fall of about 40% in the thyroid burden of the cows followed by a return near the initial equilibrium level (2-3 times the daily uptake in summer and 1 time in winter). At birth the ratio between the specific radioactivity of the calf thyroid and the cow thyroid was about 3. Transfer coefficients in milk at the equilibrium (one month after calving) were 0.35-0.50% in summer and 0.75-1.25 in winter.
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is considered eradicated from Denmark. Currently, very few (if any) Danish cattle herds could be infected with BVD virus (BVDV). The Danish antibody blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been successfully used during the Danish BVD eradication program, initiated in 1994. During the last decade, the cattle herd size has increased while the prevalence of BVDV has decreased. In this study, we investigated how these changes could affect the performance of the Danish blocking ELISA and of the SVANOVIR? BVDV-Ab indirect ELISA. The latter has successfully been used to eradicate BVD in Sweden. Data (2003-2010) on changes in median herd size and milk production levels, occurrence of viremic animals and bulk milk surveillance were analysed. Additionally, the Danish blocking ELISA and the SVANOVIR ELISA were compared analyzing milk and serum samples. The prevalence of antibody positive milking cows that could be detected by each test was estimated, by diluting positive individual milk samples and making artificial milk pools.
During the study period, the median herd size increased from 74 (2003) to 127 cows (2010), while the prevalence of BVDV infected herds decreased from 0.51 to 0.02 %. The daily milk yield contribution of a single seropositive cow to the entire daily bulk milk was reduced from 1.61 % in 2003 to 0.95 % in 2010 due to the increased herd size. It was observed that antibody levels in bulk milk decreased at national level. Moreover, we found that when testing bulk milk, the SVANOVIR? BVDV-Ab can detect a lower prevalence of seropositive lactating cows, compared to the Danish blocking ELISA (0.78 % vs. 50 %). Values in the SVANOVIR? BVDV-Ab better relate to low concentrations of antibody positive milk (R(2)?=?94-98 %), than values in the blocking ELISA (R(2)?=?23-75 %). For sera, the two ELISAs performed equally well.
The SVANOVIR ELISA is recommended for analysis of bulk milk samples in the current Danish situation, since infected dairy herds e.g. due to import of infected cattle can be detected shortly after BVDV introduction, when only few lactating cows have seroconverted. In sera, the two ELISAs can be used interchangeably.
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The chemical composition of Norwegian bulk collected goats' milk from the University herd was analysed during one lactation period (30 weeks, 20 samples during 1983). There was considerable variation in chemical composition during the year. Fat content decreased over the first 4 months of lactation and increased during the mountain pasture period. Protein concentration decreased during the first 4 months, and then increased until the end of lactation. Lactose concentration decreased throughout lactation. Casein nitrogen (casein N) was highest at mid lactation and lowest at the beginning and end of lactation. beta-Lactoglobulin N showed the opposite trend. Citrate content showed a significantly quadratic decrease and total ash content an increase with advancing lactation. Mutual significant correlations between total P, K, Na, Ca and Mg were calculated, and all increased throughout lactation. There was significant positive correlation between concentrations of individual medium-chain fatty acids and stage of lactation. They remained more or less constant during the first part of the lactation, decreased to minima when the goats were on pasture, and increased during the last phase of lactation. Concentration of C16 fatty acid was negatively correlated with C18 and C18:1. Goat flavour intensity score and quality flavour score were highest at mid lactation, and positively correlated with the acid degree value.
On 26 April 1986, an accident at a Ukrainian nuclear reactor at Chernobyl triggered the release of large quantities of fission products into the atmosphere. After 7 May 1986 measurable quantities of ruthenium-103, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 were detected in environmental sampling carried out in all regions of Canada. Maximum airborne concentrations for each radionuclide were of the order of a few mBq.m-3 and contaminated milk samples on average contained less than 1Bq.L-1 of iodine-131 and cesium-137. The mean value of the effective dose equivalent for an adult Canadian in the two months following the accident is calculated to be 0.28 microSv. As this total radiation dose is about 10(-33) of the dose from natural background during the same period, the resultant radiological detriment is concluded to be negligible.
On the basis of the results of long-term observations, general laws have been identified determining the dynamics of 90Sr concentration in the bone tissue of the population of the USSR in 1959-71, the peculiarities of 90Sr accumulation in different age groups and the connection and dependences between the intake and the contect of the isotope in human organism. It has been found that maximum 90Sr concentration occur in children born in the year when nuclear tests were carried out. The type of distribution of the frequency of occurrence of cases showing different levels of 90Sr content in uniform population groups was determined. Characteristic features of 90Sr distribution in different bones of the skeleton and its changes in the course of time were demonstrated.