The absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans was studied in four breast-fed infants. The absorption was measured by comparing the estimated total intake and the excretion in faeces, during 48 hours, at three different time points; 1, 2 and 3 months post parta. The levels of the analysed compounds in the human milk are typical for Sweden, i.e approximately 20 ppt toxic equivalents for the dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and for the polychlorinated biphenyls approximately 16 ppt toxic equivalents. For most of the congeners the absorption is found to be over 95%. Higher excretion is noticed for heptachlorinated and octachlorinated dioxins.
The aim of this study was, firstly, to determine what methods of delivering fluorides might be acceptable to Finnish municipalities and, secondly, to investigate which characteristics of the municipalities best explain the variation in acceptability of fluorides. A sample, composed of 46 Finnish municipalities and representing the communes according to number of inhabitants was drawn and a mail survey sent to decision-makers (n = 1922). In this survey we assessed the characteristics of each commune and its decision-makers and asked how acceptable various methods of fluoride delivery were. The acceptability of the various methods was: toothpaste 95%, gels and varnishes 81%, rinses 63%, salt 48%, piped water 33%, and milk 11%. In industrialized communes these methods of delivery were usually slightly better accepted than in non-industrialized areas. Acceptability of fluorides seemed to differ in the various regions of Finland, Uusimaa region being the most liberal towards use of fluorides. Members of the labour parties seemed to accept piped water containing fluoride and fluoridated milk significantly more often than did conservatives. Among decision-makers, the various methods of delivery were best accepted by dentists, physicians and members of health councils.
Genomic Selection (GS) is a newly developed tool for the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of dense markers covering the whole genome. For a successful application of GS, accuracy of the prediction of genomewide breeding value (GW-EBV) is a key issue to consider. Here we investigated the accuracy and possible bias of GW-EBV prediction, using real bovine SNP genotyping (18,991 SNPs) and phenotypic data of 500 Norwegian Red bulls. The study was performed on milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, first lactation mastitis traits, and calving ease. Three methods, best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP), Bayesian statistics (BayesB), and a mixture model approach (MIXTURE), were used to estimate marker effects, and their accuracy and bias were estimated by using cross-validation. The accuracies of the GW-EBV prediction were found to vary widely between 0.12 and 0.62. G-BLUP gave overall the highest accuracy. We observed a strong relationship between the accuracy of the prediction and the heritability of the trait. GW-EBV prediction for production traits with high heritability achieved higher accuracy and also lower bias than health traits with low heritability. To achieve a similar accuracy for the health traits probably more records will be needed.
Acne is a very common skin condition, and it is of great interest to elucidate lifestyle factors that may contribute to its occurrence. In the last decade, the acne-diet connection has been brought back to credibility.
To examine whether high intakes of dairy products in early adolescence is associated with moderate to severe acne in later adolescence.
The study is a longitudinal, questionnaire-based population study of Norwegian adolescents. Students attending the 10th grade (15-16 years old) of compulsory schooling in Oslo in 2000-2001 and the 13th grade (18-19 years old) 3 years later, in 2004, were invited. Dairy product consumption was self-reported at age 15-16 and acne severity was self-assessed and reported at age 18-19.
The overall prevalence of moderate to severe acne was 13.9%. High intakes (=2 glasses per day) of full-fat dairy products were associated with moderate to severe acne. In boys with exclusively high intakes of full-fat dairy products, the odds ratio for acne was 4.81 (1.59-14.56). A high total intake of dairy products was associated with acne in girls (OR 1.80, 1.02-3.16). No significant associations were found between acne and intake of semi-skimmed or skimmed dairy products, and not with moderate intakes of any fat variety of dairy products.
This study shows association between high intakes of dairy products and acne in adolescence. Our findings support a hypothesis suggesting that dairy consumption may be a factor contributing to acne. The study is based on multiple hypothesis testing, and the methodological limitations must be considered when interpreting the results.
The acrylamide levels in breast milk and the main categories of Swedish baby food products, i.e. breast milk substitute (infant formula), gruel, porridge and canned baby food, have been analysed. Furthermore, the acrylamide intake from these products by children up to one year of age has been estimated. Other kind of foods e.g. biscuits, are not included. Because of the expected low concentrations of acrylamide, a new sample extraction method for detection by liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, was developed and validated. The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 microg kg(-1) for liquid samples and 2 microg kg(-1) for other samples. The average levels found for gruel, porridge and canned baby food, all ready to eat, were 1.4, 26, and 7.8 microg/kg respectively. We found great variations in the acrylamide levels between and in different food categories,
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To analyse simultaneously the effect of several risk factors for peptic ulcer. DESIGN--Cohort study where all patients with new or incident peptic ulcers in a well defined population were registered for a seven year period. The follow up started with a comprehensive health survey including a questionnaire on diet, lifestyle, psychological and social conditions, and health. Relative risks, both sex specific and separate, for gastric and duodenal ulcers were estimated from proportional hazard regression analysis. SETTING--A population based survey conducted in the municipality of Tromsø, northern Norway. PARTICIPANTS--In 1980, a total of 21,440 men and women, aged 20 to 54 years and 20 to 49 years respectively, were invited to participate. A total of 14,667 people attended and returned the questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS--A total of 328 people had their first peptic ulcer in the follow up period. Age, cigarette smoking, first degree relatives with peptic ulcer, and low educational level were shared risk factors for peptic ulcer in both men and women. In men, frequent upper respiratory infections increased the risk of gastric ulcer and drinking a great deal of milk increased the risk of duodenal ulcer. None of the other dietary variables, including coffee and alcohol consumption, contributed significantly to the risk. Use of analgesics was not a risk factor, and none of the psychological indicators analysed carried any significant risk. CONCLUSIONS--Age, inheritance, and cigarette smoking are all important risk factors for peptic ulcer. The increased risk associated with low educational background indicate that social strains, comprising lifestyle and diet habits, are part of the multifactorial aetiology of peptic ulcer. No support was found for the assumption that peptic ulcer disease is a psychosomatic disorder. This study did not support the view that duodenal and gastric ulcers have different aetiologies-rather it showed a similarity in risk patterns.
Comment In: J Epidemiol Community Health. 1995 Apr;49(2):2247798055
Preterm infants are usually breastfed less than full-term infants, and successful breastfeeding requires a supportive environment and special efforts from their mothers. A breastfeeding peer-support group, utilising social media, was developed for these mothers in order to support them in this challenge. Mothers were able to discuss breastfeeding and share experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants based on the postings in peer-support group discussions in social media. The actively participating mothers (n?=?22) had given birth