Information is sparse concerning the incidence and prognosis of headache in children from the general population, especially of tension-type headache. In this study, headache diagnoses and symptoms were reassessed in 122 out of 130 schoolchildren after 3 years. Nearly 80% of those with headache at first evaluation still reported headache at follow-up. Although the likelihood of experiencing the same headache diagnosis and symptoms was high, about one-fifth of children with tension-type headache developed migraine and vice versa. Female gender predicted migraine and frequent headache episodes predicted overall headache at follow-up. The estimated average annual incidence was 81 and 65 per 1000 children, for tension-type headache and migraine, respectively. We conclude that there is a considerable risk of developing and maintaining headache during childhood. Headache diagnoses should be reassessed regularly and treatment adjusted. Girls and children with frequent headache have a poorer prognosis and therefore intervention is particularly important in these groups.
The hypothesis of a genetic component in the etiology of migraine is getting a foothold. However, to explore genetic associations, precision in clinical phenotypization is crucial. For this reason, migraine-specific questionnaires, well discriminating between primary headaches, are required when large numbers of individuals need to be assessed.
We adapted and translated in two languages, German and Italian, the Finnish Migraine-Specific Questionnaire for use in family studies.
This adaptation proved to be reliable when differentiating from primary headaches, and to be in very good agreement with the standard for comparison. However, discriminating between migraine with and without aura still relays on a specialist evaluation. This article describes the validation of this questionnaire.
Migraine is a disabling, chronic neurological disease leading to severe headache episodes affecting 13.2% of the Swedish population. Migraine leads to an extensive socio-economic burden in terms of healthcare costs, reduced workforce and quality of life (QoL) but studies of the health-economic consequences in a Swedish context are lacking. The objective of this study is to map the health-economic consequences of migraine in a defined patient population in terms of healthcare consumption, production loss and QoL in Sweden.
The study is based on data from a web-based survey to members in the Swedish patients' association suffering from migraine. The survey was conducted in May 2018 and included people with migraine aged 18?years or older. The survey included questions on health resource consumption, lost production resulting from migraine-related absenteeism and presenteeism, and QoL as measured by the EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D-5?L) and the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6). The results are presented in yearly costs per patient and losses in quality adjusted life years (QALYs).
The results are based on answers from 630 individuals with migraine and are presented by number of migraine days per month. The total cost per patient and year increased with the number of migraine days per month (p
The highest prevalence of migraine is detected among people who are of working age. The aim of this study was to assess the burden of migraine in an occupational health care setting using real world data collected as a part of routine clinical practice.
This retrospective register study included migraineurs using occupational health care at the private health care provider Terveystalo. An age and gender matched control population was established for comparison. Electronic medical records were assessed for overall and migraine related health care visits, sick-leaves and comorbidities. Stratification to acute and prophylactic treatment groups along with prophylactic treatment lines was based on prescriptions.
Among the 369,383 individuals in the study cohort, 7.4% women and 2.1% men were identified having a diagnosis of migraine. Prophylactic medication was prescribed to 13% of migraine patients and exclusively acute medication to 37%. Although migraine related visits and sick-leave days were significantly lower than overall visits or sick-leave days, both increased by prophylactic treatment line. The number of visits rose from 13.8 to 26.2 and sick-leave days from 16.8 to 30.4 per patient-year, in those without prophylaxis vs. =3 prophylactic treatments. Moreover, migraine patients had 1.7-fold increase in visits and 1.8-fold increase in sick leave days on average per patient-year, when compared to the control population. Depression and anxiety were 1.8-fold more common among patients with migraine, and the frequency also increase by treatment line.
Migraine burden increased by each failed treatment line and was associated with increased comorbidity. In addition, migraine patients had significantly higher extent of visits and sick-leave days as well as extent of comorbidities when compared to their age- and gender-matched counterparts.
We previously reported that many patients who present to the ED with "migraine" headache do not meet the International Headache Society criteria (IHSC) for the diagnosis of acute migraine. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the frequency for which ED patients with migraine headache meet the Canadian Headache Society criteria (CHSC) vs the IHSC.
This was a prospective, observational study, performed at a community ED. Consecutive patients who presented to study authors with a chief complaint of headache were enrolled. Historical/clinical data were collected on a standardized form. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and Fisher exact test was used as appropriate.
One hundred eighty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. Mean age was 38 years. Females comprised 69% of patients. Thirty-seven percent of patients had prior ED visits for headaches. A positive family history of migraines was present in 35% of patients. Diagnostic imaging was previously performed in 44 of the enrollees to evaluate the cause of their headaches. A total of 43 (23%) patients had a prior diagnosis of migraine. Overall CHSC was met in 18% of patients, compared with 15% of patients who met IHSC. Discharge diagnosis of migraine was made in 41% of patients. Of these patients, 33% met CHSC and 28% met IHSC (P=.30). For patients with discharge diagnosis of migraine, 33% of females and 36% of males fit CHSC (P=.53), whereas 26% and 36% met IHSC (P=.34), respectively. For patients with a prior diagnosis of migraine, 32% met CHSC and 26% met IHSC (P=.24). Patients with a prior diagnosis of migraine and/or a discharge diagnosis of migraine met CHSC 31% (95% CI, 22%-40%) of the time vs 25% for the IHSC (95% CI, 16%-34%) (P=.26). Four patients without a discharge and/or previous diagnosis of migraine met CHSC; 3 met IHSC.
In our study population, only a minority of patients with headache who have prior diagnosis and/or ED diagnosis of migraine headache met CHSC. The utility of CHSC and/or IHSC to standardize ED patients for headache research may be limited.
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and to compare the characteristics of transient visual disturbances (TVDs) of possible migraine origin in a clinical and a general population. Data were obtained in interviews from 100 consecutive female migraine patients (17-69 years) and 245 women (40-75 years) from the general population. The lifetime prevalences were 37% and 13%, respectively. We did not detect any differences in characteristics of TVDs between patients and women in the general population. A gradual onset of five or more minutes was stated by as few as 45% and 46%, respectively. The typical headache phase in conjunction with a TVD had more migrainous features in patients. We conclude from our data that the TVDs in this study, which do not fulfill the IHS criteria for migraine with aura, more likely represent poorly described or abortive migraine phenomena, rather than phenomena of other origin.
Chronic migraine is defined as having more than 15 headache days in a month, half of these showing migraine features, for at least 3 months. It is a chronic painful syndrome with aspects such as psychiatric comorbid, decreased quality of life, and environmental and intrinsic psychological factors that make face-to-face treatment difficult. Children and adolescent migraine differ from adults as a result of growing brain and evolving disorder. In this paper, we will emphasize the definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, burden of life, and management of chronic migraine in children and adolescent.
Seasonal rhythm of migraine attacks may support a role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus in the pathophysiology of migraine. The objective of this study was to provide evidence for seasonal variation in migraine. Eighty-nine female migraineurs volunteered to record every migraine attack in detail for 12 consecutive months. Attacks associated with sleep complaints were defined as insomnia-related. By using Edwards' model for recognition and estimation of cyclic trends, time-series analysis was made. Fifty-eight patients, of which 26 had migraine without aura (MO) and 32 had migraine with aura (MA), completed the study. A total of 1840 attacks were recorded. The mean age +/- SD was 36.9 +/- 6.0. Patients with a lifetime history of MA showed marked seasonal fluctuation with more attacks in the light season compared to the dark. Time of peak was May 21. Peak/low ratio was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08-1.55). When insomnia-related attacks (n = 312) were removed the seasonal variation became insignificant. There is a seasonal trend with more migraine attacks in the light season compared to the dark season in females with MA, but not MO, living in an arctic area. This is caused by the seasonal variation of insomnia-related attacks in patients with MA.
In two related studies, we explored the prevalence of migraine and its associated clinical characteristics in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) as well as psychiatric morbidity in patients treated for migraine.
The first study included 323 subjects with BD type I (BD I) or BD type II (BD II), diagnosed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Lifetime version (SADS-L) format, or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Migraine history was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire. In a second sample of 102 migraine patients, we investigated current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity using the SADS-L. Statistical analyses were conducted using nonparametric analysis and log-linear models.
A total of 24.5% of BD patients had comorbid migraine; those with BD II had a higher prevalence (34.8%) compared to BD I (19.1%) (p
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of referred children with nonorganic abdominal pain who meet the criteria for 1 or more diagnoses of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), explore the distribution of diagnoses according to the revised pediatric Rome III criteria (PRC-III), and to investigate reasons for failure to meet these criteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited children (4-15 years) consecutively referred by general practitioners to 4 general pediatric outpatient clinics for the evaluation of recurrent abdominal pain. FGID diagnoses were based on the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III version, completed by parents. To exclude organic disease, all patients underwent medical investigations and were reevaluated at follow-up after 6 to 9 months. RESULTS: Of the 152 patients included, 142 (93%) had functional abdominal pain. Of these, 124 (87%) met the criteria for 1 or more diagnoses according to the PRC-III: 66% met the criteria for 1, 29% for 2, and 5% for 3 diagnoses. Irritable bowel syndrome was the most common diagnosis (43%) and overlapped with aerophagia in 16 children (38% of the children with overlapping diagnoses) and with abdominal migraine in 14 (33%). In the 18 patients (13%) not fulfilling the PRC-III for any FGID diagnosis, the main reason was insufficient pain frequency (83%). CONCLUSIONS: Of the referred children with functional abdominal pain, 87% met the PRC-III for specific diagnoses. This supports the use of these criteria as a diagnostic tool. The significant overlap between different FGIDs, however, makes it unclear whether some of the diagnoses represent distinct disorders or artificial categories.