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The acetic acid test in evaluation of subclinical genital papillomavirus infection: a comparative study on penoscopy, histopathology, virology and scanning electron microscopy findings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature24490
Source
Genitourin Med. 1992 Apr;68(2):90-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1992
Author
A. Wikström
M A Hedblad
B. Johansson
M. Kalantari
S. Syrjänen
M. Lindberg
G. von Krogh
Author Affiliation
Department of Dermatovenereology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Genitourin Med. 1992 Apr;68(2):90-9
Date
Apr-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetic Acid
Acetic Acids - diagnostic use
Blotting, Southern
Comparative Study
Endoscopy
Humans
Male
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Papillomavirus
Penile Diseases - diagnosis - pathology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Predictive value of tests
Sensitivity and specificity
Tumor Virus Infections - diagnosis - pathology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES--To evaluate colposcopic criteria in acetowhite lesions of the penis ("penoscopy") for the diagnosis of subclinical genitoanal papillomavirus infection (GPVI) compared with histopathological criteria of HPV involvement and to various hybridisation assays for HPV DNA detection, and to depict typical lesions by scanning electron microscopy. DESIGN--The study included 101 randomly selected male partners of females with known GPVI, or with penile symptoms such as itching, burning and dyspareunia who did not exhibit overt genital warts but appeared to be afflicted with acetowhite penile lesions after topical application of 5% acqueous acetic acid. Lesions were judged by penoscopy as either typical, conspicuous or nontypical for underlying HPV infection. Biopsy specimens from 91 men were examined by light microscopy and by either Southern blot (SB), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or in situ hybridisation (ISH) assays for the presence of HPV DNA of the HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 42 (Group A). From another ten men lesions clinically typical for GPVI were also examined topographically by scanning electronic microscopy (Group B). SETTING--The STD out-patient clinic of the Department of Dermatovenereology of Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. RESULTS--Group A Seventy eight (86%) of the biopsied lesions met the penoscopy criteria of being either typical of or conspicuous for GVPI. The agreement between penoscopy and histopathology was fairly good, as HPV diagnosis was made by both methods in 56 (62%) of the cases. The reliability of applying strict colposcopic hallmarks was further substantiated by the finding that 55 (60%) of the biopsy specimens taken from penoscopically typical/conspicuous lesions contained HPV DNA. However, there are diagnostic pitfalls for the acetic acid test. Coexistence of an eczematoid reaction with changes indicative of HPV influence was detected in six (7%) of the cases, while an inflammatory response only occurred in 17 (19%) of the specimens. Additional histopathological diagnoses (normal epithelium, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, balanitis circinata parakeratotica, verruca plana) were established in another eight (9%) of the cases. Among the HPV DNA positive cases, all of the HPV types tested for were detected with the exception of HPV 18. A severe penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN III) was revealed in five (5%) of biopsies; HPV 16 was present in two and HPV 42 in one of these biopsy specimens. GROUP B--Scanning electron microscopy depiction harmonised with the penoscopy findings showing that subclinical GPVI characteristically exhibits a well demarcated, slightly elevated border and that the central area of lesions often displays a "groove" in which the epithelium appears to be thin with protrusions from beneath that probably represent capillaries. CONCLUSION--Use of the acetic acid test for evaluation of GPVI should be combined with a colposcopic evaluation based on strict topographic hallmarks, followed by a directed biopsy for light microscopic evaluation. We found that the positive predictive value of colposcopy was as high when correlated with histopathological findings (72%) as when virological methods were used, whether HPV DNA hybridisation testing was performed with the well established SB and ISH assays (45%), or by applying the newly introduced and highly sensitive PCR assay as well (71%). False positivity from the acetic acid test occurs and is mainly due to inflammatory conditions but also to the presence of other conditions. Epithelial fissures are evidently associated with some subclinical GPVI lesions and may potentially represent loci minores for infectious stimuli and perhaps facilitate the transmission of some blood-borne STDs. We prose that the term "papillomavirus balanoposthitis" should be used for penile HPV infection associated with inflammatory responses. Our study indicates that PIN III frequently occurs in a subclinical form and may be associated with not only previously identified "high-risk" HPV types such as type 16, but also with the HPV type 42 that has not previously been considered as oncogenic.
PubMed ID
1316310 View in PubMed
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Activity-induced dental modification in holocene siberian hunter-fisher-gatherers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100395
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Oct;143(2):266-78
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Andrea Waters-Rist
Vladimir I Bazaliiskii
Andrzej Weber
Olga I Goriunova
M Anne Katzenberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N-1N4. awaters@ucalgary.ca
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2010 Oct;143(2):266-78
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asia, Central
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Fossils
Geography
History, Ancient
Humans
Male
Mandible
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Middle Aged
Occupations
Paleodontology
Sex Distribution
Siberia
Statistics, nonparametric
Tooth - anatomy & histology
Tooth Attrition
Abstract
The use of teeth as tools provides clues to past subsistence patterns and cultural practices. Five Holocene period hunter-fisher-gatherer mortuary sites from the south-western region of Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russian Federation, are observed for activity-induced dental modification (AIDM) to further characterize their adaptive regimes. Grooves on the occlusal surfaces of teeth are observed in 25 out of 123 individuals (20.3%) and were most likely produced during the processing of fibers from plants and animals, for making items such as nets and cordage. Regional variation in the frequency of individuals with occlusal grooves is found in riverine versus lakeshore sites. This variation suggests that production of material culture items differed, perhaps in relation to different fishing practices. There is also variation in the distribution of grooves by sex: grooves are found predominately in females, except at the Late Neolithic-Bronze Age river site of Ust'-Ida I where grooves are found exclusively in males. Occlusal grooves were cast using polyvinylsiloxane and maxillary canine impressions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine striation patterns. Variation in striae orientation suggests that a variety of activities, and/or different manufacturing techniques, were involved in groove production. Overall, the variability in occlusal groove frequency, sex and regional distribution, and microscopic striae patterns, points to the multiplicity of activities and ways in which people used their mouths and teeth in cultural activities.
PubMed ID
20853480 View in PubMed
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Adsorption inhibition as a mechanism of freezing resistance in polar fishes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature46812
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jun;74(6):2589-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1977
Author
J A Raymond
A L DeVries
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jun;74(6):2589-93
Date
Jun-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization
Adsorption
Animals
Blood Proteins - physiology
Cold Climate
Fishes - physiology
Freezing
Glycoproteins - blood
Kinetics
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Molecular Weight
Protein Conformation
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Species Specificity
Abstract
Polar fishes are known to have serum proteins and glycoproteins that protect them from freezing, by a noncolligative process. Measurements of antifreeze concentrations in ice and scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried antifreeze solutions indicate that the antifreezes are incorporated in ice during freezing. The antifreezes also have a pronounced effect on the crystal habit of ice grown in their presence. Each of four antifreezes investigated caused ice to grow in long needles whose axes were parallel to the ice c axis. Together these results indicate the antifreezes adsorb to ice surfaces and inhibit their growth. A model in which adsorbed antifreezes raise the curvature of growth steps on the ice surface is proposed to account for the observed depression of the temperature at which freezing occurs and agrees well with experimental observations. The model is similar to one previously proposed for other cases of crystal growth inhibition.
PubMed ID
267952 View in PubMed
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[Airborne dust particles in indoor environment and allergy]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15479
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Apr 30;121(11):1344-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-30-2001
Author
H. Ormstad
Author Affiliation
Avdeling for miljømedisin, Statens institutt for folkehelse, Postboks 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo. heidi.ormstad@folkehelsa.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Apr 30;121(11):1344-50
Date
Apr-30-2001
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
English Abstract
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - chemically induced - etiology - immunology
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission
Norway
Particle Size
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - chemically induced - etiology - immunology
Sulfur Compounds - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The overall aim of this study was to investigate how airborne house dust particles may contribute to an allergic immune response, and thereby also to asthma and allergic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified and characterized airborne house dust particles, with regard to elemental and size distribution. Furthermore, an immunogold labelling technique was used to study whether some common allergens were present on the surface of airborne house dust particles. Finally, a mouse model was used to study the adjuvant activity of airborne house dust on the IgE antibody response. RESULTS: A vast majority of the airborne particles samples from homes in Oslo were found to be less than 2.5 microns in diameter, thus they are liable to penetrate deep into the respiratory tree. This PM2.5 fraction contained, in addition to sulphur aerosols and silicates, many soot particles, most of them being less than 1 micron in diameter. These soot particles were found to carry allergens on their surface. We also found that diesel exhaust particles, which is probably a main soot component of airborne house dust, absorbed several wellknown allergens in vitro. Furthermore, the airborne house dust particles were found to elicit a local lymph node response, and to have an adjuvant activity on the production of IgE antibodies to ovalbumin as a model allergen. INTERPRETATION: These results show that indoor suspended particulate matter contains a lot of potential allergen carriers, i.e. soot particles (carbon aggregates), most of them being less that 1 micron in diameter and thereby able to transport allergens deep into the airways. In addition, our results indicate that suspended particulate matter may have an adjuvant effect on the production of IgE to common environmental allergens, and also may provoke a local inflammatory response.
PubMed ID
11419103 View in PubMed
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Airborne fibres in the norwegian silicon carbide industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170564
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2006 Apr;50(3):231-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
A. Skogstad
S. Føreland
E. Bye
W. Eduard
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Hygiene, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway. asbjorn.skogstad@stami.no
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2006 Apr;50(3):231-40
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - chemistry - classification
Carbon Compounds, Inorganic - chemistry - classification
Chemical Industry
Chemistry, Physical
Humans
Inhalation Exposure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Mineral Fibers
Norway
Occupational Exposure
Particle Size
Physicochemical Phenomena
Silicon Compounds - chemistry - classification
Surface Properties
Abstract
Morphology of silicon carbide (SiC) fibres from the Norwegian SiC industry has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fibres are an unwanted side-product in SiC production. They represent a probable cause of the observed increased occurrence of lung diseases among SiC workers. The main aim of this work is to give a detailed description of the morphological variation of the fibres. Furthermore, it is important to study the occurrence of various morphological types with respect to job types and process parameters. SiC fibres accounted for >90% of all fibres observed. Eight categories of SiC fibres are described based on their morphology. The most frequent fibre category had a smooth surface and accounted for more than half of the observed SiC fibres. The diameter distributions of the eight fibre types were significantly different except for two of the categories. More than 99% of the SiC fibres observed were
PubMed ID
16497830 View in PubMed
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Analysis and interpretation of a unique Arabic finger ring from the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271020
Source
Scanning. 2015 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sebastian K T S Wärmländer
Linda Wåhlander
Ragnar Saage
Khodadad Rezakhani
Saied A Hamid Hassan
Michael Neiß
Source
Scanning. 2015 Mar-Apr;37(2):131-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arabs
Archaeology
Female
Humans
Jewelry
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Surface Properties
Sweden
Abstract
In this work we used non-destructive SEM imaging and EDS analysis to characterize the material composition of an Arabic finger ring, which was found in a 9(th) c. woman's grave at the Viking Age (A.D. 793-1066) trading center of Birka, Sweden. The ring is set with a violet stone inscribed with Arabic Kufic writing, here interpreted as reading "il-la-lah", i.e. "For/to Allah". The stone was previously thought to be an amethyst, but the current results show it to be coloured glass. The ring has been cast in a high-grade silver alloy (94.5/5.5 Ag/Cu) and retains the post-casting marks from the filing done to remove flash and mold lines. Thus, the ring has rarely been worn, and likely passed from the silversmith to the woman buried at Birka with few owners in between. The ring may therefore constitute material evidence for direct interactions between Viking Age Scandinavia and the Islamic world. Being the only ring with an Arabic inscription found at a Scandinavian archaeological site, it is a unique object among Swedish Viking Age material. The technical analysis presented here provides a better understanding of the properties and background of this intriguing piece of jewelry.
PubMed ID
25707897 View in PubMed
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Analysis of tooth marks in a homicide case. Observations by means of visual description, stereo-photography, scanning electron microscopy and stereometric graphic plotting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251476
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 1976;34(1):1-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
G. Bang
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 1976;34(1):1-11
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bites and Stings - pathology
Bites, Human - pathology
Breast - injuries
Dental Models
Expert Testimony
Female
Forensic Dentistry
Homicide
Humans
Male
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Nipples
Norway
Odontometry
Photography - methods
Tooth - anatomy & histology
Abstract
In 1957 a woman was murdered in Oslo. Her left breast exhibited tooth marks. A man was arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment partly because of the dental evidence. He never admitted guilt and filed a petition for retrial. The present author was appointed as new dental expert. The material consisted of the fixed breast, models of the bite mark and models of the teeth of the convict, and several photographs. By means of visual examination, a magnifying glass, a lens stereoscope and a stereomicroscope characteristic details were noted. Stereoscopic picture pairs were taken, the material was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and a stereometricgraphic plotting method permitting the outline of the tooth mark or the biting edge of a tooth to be registered in great detail in all three dimensions in the form of a contour map. This method has not previously been applied in the analysis of tooth marks in human skin. These examinations revealed no discrepancies but showed many corresponding characteristic features between the tooth marks and the teeth of the convict, resulting in the conclusion that it is highly probable that the tooth marks in the breast were made by the teeth of the convict.
PubMed ID
1066945 View in PubMed
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An intense half-semester developmental biology course, as taught at Uppsala University, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18494
Source
Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47(2-3):171-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
Lennart Olsson
Author Affiliation
Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany. b1olle@pop3.uni-jena.de
Source
Int J Dev Biol. 2003;47(2-3):171-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Curriculum
Developmental Biology
Education - methods
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Sweden
Xenopus
Abstract
This intensive course, designed for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, was first taught in 1995 at Uppsala University, Sweden, and consists of a half-semester (8-9 weeks) of daily lecture and laboratory sessions covering a broad range of topics and giving an overview of developmental biology and some of its applications. The labs introduce students to a diverse assortment of model systems. The course goals are to present a comparative view of animal development (gametogenesis, fertilization, gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis), followed by lectures on cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate development, such as induction mechanisms, cell adhesion and migration, cell-matrix interactions and genomic imprinting. The development of complex systems, such as the nervous system, limbs and flowers, is emphasized, including aspects such as malformations, homeosis and mutant analysis, reproduction and fertility problems, and the connection between development and cancer. Model organisms are emphasized, but evolutionary aspects receive due attention. Typically, during the first 5 weeks, a day begins with lectures in the morning and ends with labs or demonstrations and seminars in the afternoon. Wednesday afternoons are "free" to give time for reading. A theory test is taken at the end of this period. Then, students do supervised research for 3 weeks to give them a feel for what it is like to do "real science." Finally, students present oral and written reports on their projects. This is the only course students enroll in during this portion of the semester, so they are expected to devote full effort to it.
PubMed ID
12705666 View in PubMed
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Are intraaortic balloons suitable for reuse? A survey study of 112 used intraaortic balloons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209468
Source
Artif Organs. 1997 Feb;21(2):121-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
M. Yang
X. Deng
Z. Zhang
M. Julien
F. Pelletier
D. Desaulniers
R. Cossette
F J Teijeira
G. Laroche
R. Guidoin
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Artif Organs. 1997 Feb;21(2):121-30
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Calibration
Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
Catheterization
Data Collection
Equipment Reuse - standards
Humans
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pumping - standards - trends
Longitudinal Studies
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Polyurethanes - chemistry
Quebec
Spectrophotometry, Infrared
Surface Properties
Tensile Strength
Abstract
To assess the safety of reusing single-use intraaortic balloon devices (IABs), 112 used devices were investigated in terms of physical integrity, gas leakage inspection, mechanical performance, surface chemistry and morphology, and physical stability. These IABs were all used clinically only once, and the duration of the IABs in vivo ranged from 6 to 312 h. Macroscopic examination of the balloons and the outer catheters revealed no obvious change in either shape or color. No discernible abrasions or cracks were observed on the balloons. However, 61% of the balloons were creased, and 40% of the central lumens and 21% of the sheaths showed visible bending flaws. Moreover, 65% of the balloons and 38% of the central lumens were contaminated by visible residual organic debris. The physical integrity of each device was verified in a specially designed leakage-fatigue tester for 72 h. Ninety-seven percent of the devices passed the leakage inspection. Stress-strain testing, differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy analyses clearly indicated that there were no significant differences in the mechanical properties, bulk material morphology, surface chemistry, and external surface morphology between the used balloons and virgin controls. Although some surface modifications occurred on the internal side of the balloons, the external surfaces of most balloons suffered no trauma. Most of the used IABs examined in this study maintained physical and mechanical properties similar to those of the virgin devices. The chemistry of the balloon material was stable after short-term in vivo use. However, it does not seem possible to establish a rigorous protocol of cleaning, sterilization, and inspection to guarantee a safer reuse of these devices. The presence of residual organic debris that cannot be eliminated results in an imperative preclusion not to reuse the IABs.
Notes
Erratum In: Artif Organs 1998 Jan;22(1):96
PubMed ID
9028494 View in PubMed
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101 records – page 1 of 11.