Uncertainty exists whether the 4154delA mutation of the BRCA1 gene detected in unrelated individuals from Latvia, Poland and Russia is a founder mutation with a common ancestral origin. To trace back this problem we analysed the mutation-associated haplotype of the BRCA1 intragenic SNPs as well as intragenic and nearby STR markers in mutation carriers from the aforementioned populations. The mutation-associated SNP alleles were found to be "T-A-A-A-A-G" for six intragenic SNPs of the BRCA1 gene (IVS8-58delT, 3232A/G, 3667A/G, IVS16-68A/G, IVS16-92A/G, IVS18+66G/A, respectively). The alleles 195, 154, 210 and 181 were found to be associated with the 4154delA mutation for STR markers D17S1325, D17S855, D17S1328 and D17S1320, correspondingly. Further analysis of markers in the 4154delA mutation carriers from all three populations allows us to assert that all analysed mutation carriers share a common ancestry.
The antagonistic pleiotropy theory of senescence postulates genes or traits that have opposite effects on early-life and late-life performances. Because selection is generally weaker late in life, genes or traits that improve early-life performance but impair late-life performance should come to predominate. Variation in the strength of age-specific selection should then generate adaptive variation in senescence. We demonstrate this mechanism by comparing early and late breeders within a population of semelparous capital-breeding sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We show that early breeders (but not late breeders) are under strong selection for a long reproductive lifespan (RLS), which facilitates defence of their nests against disturbance by later females. Accordingly, early females invest less energy in egg production while reserving more for nest defence. Variation along this reproductive trade-off causes delayed or slower senescence in early females (average RLS of 26 days) than in late females (reproductive lifespan of 12 days). We use microsatellites to confirm that gene flow is sufficiently limited between early and late breeders to allow adaptive divergence in response to selection. Because reproductive trade-offs should be almost universal and selection acting on them should typically vary in time and space, the mechanism described herein may explain much of the natural variation in senescence.
Large carnivores were persecuted to near extinction during the last centuries, but have now recovered in some countries. It has been proposed earlier that the recovery of the Northern European brown bear is supported by migration from Russia. We tested this hypothesis by obtaining for the first time continuous sampling of the whole Finnish bear population, which is located centrally between the Russian and Scandinavian bear populations. The Finnish population is assumed to experience high gene flow from Russian Karelia. If so, no or a low degree of genetic differentiation between Finnish and Russian bears could be expected. We have genotyped bears extensively from all over Finland using 12 validated microsatellite markers and compared their genetic composition to bears from Russian Karelia, Sweden, and Norway. Our fine masked investigation identified two overlapping genetic clusters structured by isolation-by-distance in Finland (pairwise FST = 0.025). One cluster included Russian bears, and migration analyses showed a high number of migrants from Russia into Finland, providing evidence of eastern gene flow as an important driver during recovery. In comparison, both clusters excluded bears from Sweden and Norway, and we found no migrants from Finland in either country, indicating that eastern gene flow was probably not important for the population recovery in Scandinavia. Our analyses on different spatial scales suggest a continuous bear population in Finland and Russian Karelia, separated from Scandinavia.
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To predict further invasions of pests it is important to understand what factors contribute to the genetic structure of their populations. Cosmopolitan pest species are ideal for studying how different agroecosystems affect population genetic structure within a species at different climatic extremes. We undertook the first population genetic study of the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), a cosmopolitan invasive herbivore, and examined the genetic structure of this species in Northern and Southern Europe. In Finland, cold temperatures limit whiteflies to greenhouses and prevent them from overwintering in nature, and in Greece, milder temperatures allow whiteflies to inhabit both fields and greenhouses year round, providing a greater potential for connectivity among populations. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped 1274 T. vaporariorum females collected from 18 greenhouses in Finland and eight greenhouses as well as eight fields in Greece.
Populations from Finland were less diverse than those from Greece, suggesting that Greek populations are larger and subjected to fewer bottlenecks. Moreover, there was significant population genetic structure in both countries that was explained by different factors. Habitat (field vs. greenhouse) together with longitude explained genetic structure in Greece, whereas in Finland, genetic structure was explained by host plant species. Furthermore, there was no temporal genetic structure among populations in Finland, suggesting that year-round populations are able to persist in greenhouses.
Taken together our results show that greenhouse agroecosystems can limit gene flow among populations in both climate zones. Fragmented populations in greenhouses could allow for efficient pest management. However, pest persistence in both climate zones, coupled with increasing opportunities for naturalization in temperate latitudes due to climate change, highlight challenges for the management of cosmopolitan pests in Northern and Southern Europe.
Recent evidence has implicated the genes for 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5AP) and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) as susceptibility genes for stroke in the Icelandic population. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of these genes in a central European population of stroke patients.
A total of 639 consecutive stroke patients and 736 unrelated population-based controls that had been matched for age and sex were examined using a case-control design. Twenty-two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering ALOX5AP were genotyped. For PDE4D, microsatellite AC008818-1 and 12 SNPs, which tag all common haplotypes in previously identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, were analyzed.
A nominally significant association with stroke was observed with several SNPs from ALOX5AP, including SNP SG13S114, which had been part of the Icelandic at-risk haplotype. Associations were stronger in males than in females, with SG13S114 (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.55; P=0.017) and SG13S100 (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54; P=0.024) showing the strongest associations. No significant associations were detected with single markers and haplotypes in PDE4D. The frequencies of single-marker alleles and haplotypes differed largely from those in the Icelandic population.
The present study suggests that sequence variants in the ALOX5AP gene are significantly associated with stroke, particularly in males. Variants in the PDE4D gene are not a major risk factor for stroke in individuals from central Europe. Population differences in allele and haplotype frequencies as well as LD structure may contribute to the observed differences between populations.
Our previous results on breast tumors show that LOH (loss of heterozygosity) at the FHIT locus is associated with reduced Fhit protein expression. We have also shown that LOH at this locus is significantly higher in tumors from patients carrying the BRCA2 999de15 mutation than in tumors without this mutation, presumably because of lack of DNA repair. Here, our aim was to determine the relationship of FHIT LOH with breast tumor progression. Five microsatellite markers located within the FHIT gene were typed in 239 breast tumors and corresponding normal tissue, and the LOH results were compared with clinicopathologic factors and LOH at other chromosome regions. LOH at FHIT is associated with estrogen- and progesterone-negative breast tumors, high S-phase fraction, reduced patient survival, and LOH at chromosome regions 6q, 7q, 8p, 9p, 11p, 11q, 13q, 16q, 17p, 17q, 18q, and 20q. A multivariate analysis shows that LOH at FHIT results in a 60% increased relative risk of dying. We conclude that the loss of FHIT results in growth advantage of breast tumor cells, is associated with unstable genome, and may be of prognostic value.
Reduced cell adhesion brought about by altered surface expression of E-cadherin has been implicated in invasive and metastatic malignant growth. We investigated the patterns of immunohistochemical E-cadherin expression in 120 breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we analysed DNA from the same samples for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) using three separate microsatellite markers on chromosome 16q22.1. Finally, the clinical outcome was ascertained for 108 patients. 19% (18/97) of infiltrating ductal carcinomas showed complete loss of E-cadherin expression compared with 64% (9/14) of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. LOH was detected in 46% (24/52) of infiltrating ductal carcinomas and 89% (8/9) of infiltrating lobular carcinomas. In the infiltrating lobular carcinomas, LOH was associated with complete loss of cell membrane expression of E-cadherin, although a cytoplasmic expression pattern was evident. In contrast, this association was not seen in the infiltrating ductal carcinomas. In a multivariate analysis, loss of E-cadherin expression was shown to be a significant independent risk factor for a poorer disease-free survival (P=0.019), in particular in the node-negative subset of patients (P=0.029). Significance was also approached for breast cancer corrected survival (P=0.056). We conclude that different mechanisms are involved in the altered E-cadherin expression seen in different subtypes of breast carcinomas. Furthermore, we implicate loss of E-cadherin, regardless of the genetic causes, as an independent prognostic marker for disease recurrence, especially in node-negative breast cancer patients, irrespective of the histological type.
We present a general algorithm for the detection of genomic variants using the Illumina iSelect platform. The Illumina iSelect platform is designed to detect SNPs, but our algorithm allows for the detections of more general forms of variations, including copy number polymorphisms and microsatellites. The algorithm does not rely on a priori information of the type of polymorphism being studied and is designed to genotype call a large number of individuals simultaneously. The algorithm proceeds by initially normalizing intensity and correcting for batch effects. Then each marker is clustered using a modified Gaussian mixture model where we account for variances in the expression of an individuals and the variance measured in bead level intensities of a probe/marker pair. Finally, these clusters are used to determine genotypes. The algorithm was then run on a dataset of 35,000 Icelandic individuals.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of several autoimmune disease susceptibility loci in a population of patients with psoriasis and defined joint disease from northern Sweden. METHOD: One hundred twenty patients with psoriasis and defined joint disease were examined clinically, radiologically, and with laboratory-based analyses. Disease classification was based on peripheral and/or axial engagement. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus, 1q21 (PSORS4), 3q21 (PSORS5), 8q24, 16q21, and the CTLA4 gene were analyzed using a total of 38 microsatellite markers and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Ninety-four controls with the same ethnic background as the patients were randomly selected from the same region of Sweden. RESULTS: An association was found with one of the markers in the TNFB locus within the HLA region (p = 0.012, pc = 0.024). Three markers at the PSORS4 locus on chromosome 1q21 and 2 markers at the 8q24 locus showed nominal p values of