[A decrease in the level of erythrocytes with micronuclei under the influence of pyrimidine and thiazolidine derivatives in the blood of persons who came under radiation exposure as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical Combine]
The authors have found that pentoxylum (pyrimidine derivative) and leucogenum (thyazolidine derivative) are capable or reducing the number of cells with micronuclei in the blood of people who suffered from the radiation accident at the radiochemical works of the Siberian chemical plant. The most effective decrease in the cells with micronuclei in adults was observed two weeks after treatment, while in children the same result was achieved with leucogenum on the third day.
To investigate whether high rates of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), or micronuclei(MN) in peripheral lymphocytes indicate an increased risk for subsequent cancer, a prospective cohort study of 2,969 subjects cytogenetically examined between 1970 and 1988 in four Swedish, two Finnish, and two Norwegian laboratories was initiated. To standardize for the interlaboratory variation, the results of the three cytogenetic endpoints were trichotomized for each laboratory into "low" (1st to 33rd percentile), "medium" (34th to 66th percentile), and "high" (67th to 100th percentile]. Thirty-four cancers had been diagnosed in the cohort during the observation period (1970 to 1985). The point-estimates of the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) in the three CA strata were 90, 92, and 180, respectively. This trend for a positive association was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). There was no significant trend between SMR and the trichotomized rates of SCE. In the subcohort examined for MN only two cases of cancer had been diagnosed until now. If subjects with "high" frequencies of CA or SCE have a two-fold (or greater) risk of developing cancer as compared with individuals who have "medium" or "low" frequencies, we estimate that there is a likelihood of 80% and 70%, respectively, that this will be detectable as significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) differences after a further follow-up period of 5 years. Weaker associations between cancer risk and the cytogenetic endpoints would not be possible to evaluate until even later follow-ups.
Coal miners are exposed to coal dust, containing mineral particles, inorganic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and to ionizing radiation. These factors can induce oxidative stress and promote inflammation that leads to DNA damage. The aim of this investigation is to analyse the degree of DNA damage in miners working in underground coal mines in Kemerovo Region (Russian Federation) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The exposed group included 143 coal miners (mean age = 50.11±7.36 years; mean length of service in coal mining conditions = 23.26±9.66 years). As a control group, we have used venous blood extracted from 127 healthy non-exposed men. The mean age in this group was 47.67±8.45 years. We have discovered that coal miners are characterized by a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and protrusions (NBUDs) compared to non-exposed donors. In addition, we report, for the first time, a reduction of cell proliferation in a cohort of coal miners. These data are evidence of the genotoxic and cytostatic effects of occupational harmful factors of the coal mining industry. No correlation between the level of chromosome damage and age, smoking status or length of service in coal mining conditions were discovered. We suggest that the CBMN assay would be useful in biomonitoring studies to monitor hygiene and prevention strategies in occupational settings in coal mining countries.
To investigate the individual radiosensitivity of the human genome in long-term residents of areas with high radon concentration.
The materials used for this investigation were venous blood samples extracted from children living in the boarding school of Tashtagol (Kemerovo Region, Russia). Cytogenetic damage assessment was performed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) on peripheral blood lymphocytes. PCR, gel electrophoresis and product detection using a transilluminator were used to determine polymorphisms in the genes ADPRT (rs 1136410), hOGG1 (rs 1052133), NBS1 (rs 1805794), XRCC1 (rs 25487), XpC (rs 2228001), XpD (rs 13181), and XpG (rs 17655). Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric methods. To ensure accurate results, FDR-correction for multiple comparisons was performed.
We discovered a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN) in carriers of the His/His genotype of the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism in comparison to heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the Asp allele. In addition, the Ala/Ala genotype for the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the Glu/Gln genotype for the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism were associated with the elevated frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB).
As a result of this study, the elevated frequency of cytogenetic damage in people with particular DNA-repair gene polymorphisms in response to chronic exposure to radon was demonstrated. It was shown that the genes and corresponding polymorphisms (the XpG gene Asp1104His polymorphism, the ADPRT gene Val762Ala polymorphism and the NBS1 gene Glu185Gln polymorphism) can be used as molecular genetic markers of increased individual radiosensitivity in long-term residents of areas with high concentrations of radon.
Epidemiological studies have shown an increased incidence of lung cancer, bladder cancer, and esophageal cancer in chimney sweeps, probably due to their exposure to PAH in soot. The work environment for sweeps has, however, improved during the last decades. It was thus important to assess whether the present exposure still may cause genotoxic effects. A further objective was to assess whether genetic polymorphisms in metabolic enzyme activities could explain some of the variation in the parameters of genotoxicity. Venous blood samples were drawn from 71 chimney sweeps and 59 control subjects. Micronuclei were analyzed in activated peripheral B- and T-lymphocytes with preserved cytoplasm. Polymorphisms for CYP1A1 and GST1 in the sweeps were analyzed by a PCR technique. The sweeps did not have higher frequencies of micronuclei in B- or T-lymphocytes than the control subjects, when allowance was made for age and smoking in a multiple regression analysis. Further, there was no association between years of active work as a sweep and any of the two micronucleus parameters. None of the sweeps had the rare CYP1A1 genotype val/val and only one individual had the m2/m2 genotype. The presence of at least one GST1 allele (GST1+) was observed in 36 subjects (51.4%). Thirteen individuals (18.6%) were of the m1/m2 or m2/m2 genotype. And among those only seven had the combined GST1- and m1/m2 genotype. No difference was observed in B- or T-lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies between sweeps with the rare CYP1A1 genotypes m1/m2, m2/m2 or ile/val compared to individuals with the m1/m1 and ile/ile genotypes. Moreover, the GST1 deficient sweeps (GST1-) did not show any altered micronucleus frequency compared to the GST1 positive sweeps. A possible reason for the lack of genotoxic effect in sweeps is the improved hygienic conditions and change in fuels, which has decreased the exposure levels for PAH. Host polymorphisms for metabolizing enzymes did not influence the micronucleus frequencies. As the sweeps did not differ from the control subjects, with respect to micronucleus frequencies, no conclusion on the importance of host polymorphisms for genotoxic risk can be drawn.
Biodosimetry results obtained by various cytogenetic methods and electron spin resonance spectrometry among inhabitants of a radionuclide contaminated area around the siberian chemical plant (Tomsk-7).
On April 6, 1993, near the town of Tomsk (Russia) there was an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant (SCP) which resulted in extensive contamination of an area of 250 km(2) to the north of SCP with long-lived radionuclides such as (239)Pu, (137)Cs and (90)Sr. Cytogenetic methods and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry of tooth enamel were used to estimate the radiation doses received by the population. The ESR signal intensity and the chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes of the tooth donors showed a good correlation. The data showed that 15% of the inhabitants of the Samus settlement received a radiation dose >90 cGy. The exceptions were results of an examination of fishermen, where ESR gave high values (80-210 cGy) but both the chromosome assay and the cytokinesis block micronucleus method gave lower ones (8-52 cGy). A large increase in chromosome damage was observed in people born between 1961 and 1969. It was found that during these years several serious accidents at the Siberian Chemical Plant had occurred causing radiation pollution of the area. The number of cells with chromosome aberrations was significantly less among the people arriving in Samus after 1980. We found good correlations between the level of carotene consumption and a decrease in frequency of both micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes (r = 0.68, P
A possibility was examined to use a screening cytogenetic method for calculating micronuclei in frog blood cells as an indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and its hazard to human health. Data obtained correlate with an increased rate of reproductive function disorders in women and congenital malformations in children, living in regions where the cytologic studies of biological objects were carried out. The informational value of biogeochemical screening with the use of test objects for the assessment of the region ecological imbalance is stressed.
Certain environmental contaminants found in marine mammals have been shown to cause DNA damage and cancer. The micronuclei (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and/or chromosome aberration (CA) assays were used to assess baseline (spontaneous) levels of DNA damage in blood lymphocytes of individuals of the relatively healthy and lightly contaminated Arctic beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), Sarasota Bay, FL, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Northwestern Atlantic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and harp (Phoca groenlandicus) seal populations. MN cell (MNC) frequencies ranged between 2 and 14/1000 binucleated (BN) cells and were statistically similar between species. In bottlenose dolphins, MNC frequency was correlated with age and was significantly higher in females than in males. No intraspecific variation in MNC frequency was found in beluga whales. Intraspecific variation was not tested in seals due to the small sample size. Frequencies of SCEs and total CAs, excluding gaps, ranged, respectively, between 1 and 15 SCE(s)/per cell and 4-6 CAs/100 cells in beluga whales. SCE and CA frequencies did not vary with age or sex in beluga whales. The MN, SCE and CA assays were found to be practical tools for the detection of DNA damage in marine mammals and could be used in the future to compare DNA damage between relatively lightly and highly contaminated populations.
Cancer is a disease of altered gene expression involving a complex array of epigenetic events, gene mutation, chromosome rearrangements and altered chromosome number. The coincidence of genotoxic events with the induction of cancer has fueled great interest in molecular/cytogenetic epidemiological studies aimed at linking polymorphisms in genes for DNA repair and carcinogen metabolism and biomarkers of DNA/chromosome damage with cancer risk. These studies are now being expanded to include the role of dietary factors that are known to be important in DNA metabolism and repair such as folic acid, vitamin B12 and zinc. The use of DNA damage biomarkers as a surrogate for cancer would greatly facilitate our capacity to identify the most important risk factors for cancer however these biomarkers need validation. The Nordic and Italian prospective cohort studies have confirmed that elevated rates of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes are predictive of cancer risk and similar studies are now underway to validate other biomarkers such as the micronucleus assay which are more practical to apply in the larger population setting. Validation of these biomarkers requires a thorough understanding of the importance of methodological, demographic, environmental and dietary variables and the ongoing HUMN project is a good example how this can be achieved for the micronucleus assay. The capacity to study human populations has opened up new opportunities to define acceptable DNA damage rates and to establish recommended dietary allowances for genomic stability. Controlling DNA damage rate to its possible minimum is likely to have an important impact in preventing cancer and other DNA damage-related degenerative diseases including ageing.
While examining the workers of the fire nickel production contacting preferably with insoluble and weakly soluble compounds of nickel, inhibition of DNA repair and increased level of chromosome changes (micronucleus test) were detected. Decreasing of micronucleus number, which was higher in smokers, and tendency to the stimulation of DNA repair synthesis were revealed after 1-month course of ascorbic acid (1 g/day). A level of changes in chromosome structure in the control group was estimated using the index of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE): variation of initial values was in normal bounds (6-8 SCE per cell), after vitamin course it even slightly decreased. High individual variability of chromosome changes and susceptibility to ascorbic acid was found.