The aim of this study was to investigate computer use in educational activities by students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in comparison with that of students with physical disabilities and students from the general population.
The design of the study was cross-sectional with group comparison. Students with ADHD (n = 102) were pair-matched in terms of age and sex with students with physical disabilities and students from the general population (n = 940) were used as a reference group.
The study showed that less than half of the students with ADHD had access to a computer in the classroom. Students with ADHD reported significantly less frequent use of computers for almost all educational activities compared with students with physical disabilities and students from the general population. Students with ADHD reported low satisfaction with computer use in school. In addition, students with ADHD reported a desire to use computers more often and for more activities in school compared with students with physical disabilities.
These results indicate that occupational therapists should place more emphasize on how to enable students with ADHD to use computers in educational activities in school.
This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark.
We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53%). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep duration on the association between computer use and symptom load.
Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between computer use and symptom load, but the indirect effects of sleep duration were quite modest in all countries.
Sleep duration may be a potential underlying mechanism behind the association between computer use and health symptoms.
Electronic curriculum, or E-curriculum, refers to computer-based learning including educational materials available on CD or DVD, online courses, electronic mechanisms to search the literature, email, and various applications of instructional technology including providing laptops to students, multimedia projection systems, and Internet-compatible classrooms. In spite of enthusiasm about the potential for E-curriculum to enhance dental education, there is minimal guidance in the literature to assist schools with implementation. The study objectives were: 1) identify U.S. and Canadian dental schools that have initiated mandatory laptop programs and assess cost, faculty development issues, extent of curricular use, problems, and qualitative perceptions; 2) determine the extent to which twenty-two other E-curriculum resources were available and used at North American dental schools; and 3) identify factors that influenced E-curriculum implementation. A twenty-six item questionnaire, known as the Electronic Curriculum Implementation Survey (ECIS), was mailed to all sixty-six North American dental schools (ten Canadian and fifty-six U.S. schools) during 2002-03 with a response rate of 100 percent. Twenty-five of the twenty-six ECIS questions employed a menu-driven, forced choice format, but respondents could provide amplifying comments. Fifty-three questionnaires were completed by associate deans for academic affairs, three by deans, and ten by instructional technology (IT) managers, IT committee chairs, or directors of dental informatics departments. The survey found that E-curriculum implementation among North American dental schools is following the classic innovation pattern in which a few early adopting institutions proceed rapidly while the majority of potential adopters make modifications slowly. Fourteen U.S. dental schools have established mandatory laptop programs for students. Ten of these laptop programs were created in the past two years; respondents reported numerous growing pains but were generally pleased with their progress. Other E-curriculum capabilities were incorporated into courses more frequently at laptop schools than the fifty-two non-laptop schools including websites, online course evaluations, and instructor use of email to communicate with students. Few dental schools use online courses, and at most schools, few faculty have received training in online instructional techniques. Virtually all North American dental schools have provided substantial instructional technology resources to their faculty, but use of twenty-two components and capabilities of E-curriculum was limited, especially at schools without laptop programs. Various faculty-related issues were reported as implementation barriers including lack of time, skill, and incentive to develop educational software. We conclude that many North American dental schools, especially those with laptop programs, are functioning at the "learn by doing" phase of initial implementation in a four-stage innovation adoption model. E-curriculum planners should pay close attention to implementation problems that occur at this stage where many innovation efforts break down.
Present and estimated future use of personal computers (PCs) in clinical cancer research was assessed after the distribution of 24 personal computers to clinicians and scientists engaged in clinical cancer research. Two questionnaires were sent to the clinicians with an interval of six months. The clinicians were divided into two main groups, 'Experts' and 'Non-experts', based on their background knowledge of and previous experience with computers. Word processing and recording of patient details were the main application fields for the PC. Requested tasks for future were the performance of statistical analyses and graphics. The clinicians, especially the Non-experts, met the following problems upon the reception of the PC: Lack of time and help to become acquainted with the PC, as well as lack of appropriate software. Half of the clinicians were reluctant to admit any usefulness of artificial intelligence for clinical cancer care. It is concluded that the introduction of personal computers will probably improve the facilities for clinical cancer research. However, clinicians need sufficient time and help to get started, and appropriate software must also be provided.
The aim of this paper was to present how mental symptoms are connected to the use of desktop, portable or minicomputers (communicators and hand-held computers), mobile phones, and background information such as age and gender in the Finnish working-age population. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15 000 working-age (18-65) Finns. The mental symptoms of 6 121 respondents were analysed using the model factors age, gender, the use of computers and the use of mobile phones. In all data, the use of desktop computers was related to mental symptoms. However, the results of our data are not highly reliable, because the nonresponse rate was over 50%. Nevertheless, it may be essential to take into account in the future that working with computers can increase workers' mental symptoms, and it is important to observe their mental health.
To assist with educational planning we surveyed health sciences faculty members in 1989 to determine their use of microcomputers, desire for further instruction and perceptions on what microcomputer services should be provided for students. The 1989 results were compared with those of a similar survey performed in 1986.
A self-completed, mailed questionnaire, with up to three reminders.
Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.
All full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) faculty members were sent the questionnaire; over 80% of the FT and 65% of the PT faculty members responded in 1986 and in 1989.
The proportions of faculty members who used microcomputers increased significantly over the 3 years, from 71% to 87% among FT members (p = 2.2 x 10(-8)) and from 48% to 69% among PT members (p = 4.9 x 10(-8)). There were significant increases in the use of many of the applications, especially database and filing uses (from 10% to 41% among FT members [p less than 1 x 10(-9)] and from 6% to 34% among PT members [p less than 1 x 10(-9)]) and on-line access to bibliographic databases (from 7% to 37% among FT members [p less than 1 x 10(-9)] and from 3% to 18% among PT members [p less than 1 x 10(-9)]. These changes occurred mainly through individual initiative and voluntary continuing education.
The extraordinary rate of adoption of microcomputers attests to their perceived usefulness. Curriculum planners need to consider how the success of microcomputer applications can be evaluated objectively and how successful applications can be integrated into educational programs.
The need for physicians to be proficient in the use of computers is undeniable. As computers have become easier to use and more widespread, their use in medicine is expanding. Several organizations have produced continuing medical education programs to teach physicians about the use of computers in medicine but little has been reported on the effects of such programs.
We present the self-reported effects of a series of workshops that taught physicians about basic computer skills: information retrieval, the Internet, CD-ROMs, electronic mail, and computer-aided learning.
A questionnaire mailed to 65 workshop participants yielded a response rate of 46% (n = 30). Of the 30 respondents, 27% (n = 8) had bought new hardware or software because of attending the workshops, with the most common purchase being a new computer. Fifty-seven percent (n = 17) had increased their use of computers, with the most common applications being use of the Internet for information retrieval and electronic mail.
To evaluate the usability of mobile information terminals, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) or Tablet personal computers, to improve access to information resources for nurses and to explore the relationship between PDA or Tablet-supported information resources and outcomes.
The authors evaluated an initiative of the Nursing Secretariat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, which provided nurses with PDAs and Tablet PCs, to enable Internet access to information resources. Nurses had access to drug and medical reference information, best practice guidelines (BPGs), and to abstracts of recent research studies.
The authors took place over a 12-month period. Diffusion of Innovation theory and the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model guided the selection of variables for study. A longitudinal design involving questionnaires was used to evaluate the impact of the mobile technologies on barriers to research utilization, perceived quality of care, and on nurses' job satisfaction. The setting was 29 acute care, long-term care, home care, and correctional organizations in Ontario, Canada. The sample consisted of 488 frontline-nurses.
Nurses most frequently consulted drug and medical reference information, Google, and Nursing PLUS. Overall, nurses were most satisfied with the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario (RNAO) BPGs and rated the RNAO BPGs as the easiest resource to use. Among the PDA and Tablet users, there was a significant improvement in research awareness/values, and in communication of research. There was also, for the PDA users only, a significant improvement over time in perceived quality of care and job satisfaction, but primarily in long-term care settings.
It is feasible to provide nurses with access to evidence-based practice resources via mobile information technologies to reduce the barriers to research utilization.