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An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107711
Source
Pages 169-174 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):169-174
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. Methods. The BOHF project was a qualitative
  1 document  
Author
Dorothy Badry
Aileen Wight Felske
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Social Work, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. badry@ucalgary.ca
Source
Pages 169-174 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):169-174
Date
2013
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - ethnology - prevention & control
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods
Female
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - prevention & control - therapy
Health Services, Indigenous - organization & administration
Humans
Maternal Health Services - methods - organization & administration
Northwest Territories
Pregnancy
Social Determinants of Health
Abstract
The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research.
The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience.
This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.
Notes
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):428-3321878184
Cites: Can Med Assoc J. 1959 Nov 15;81:837-4113852329
PubMed ID
23984290 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial susceptibility of 3931 organisms isolated from intensive care units in Canada: Canadian National Intensive Care Unit Study, 2005/2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156930
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Sep;62(1):67-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
George G Zhanel
Mel DeCorby
Kim A Nichol
Aleksandra Wierzbowski
Patricia J Baudry
James A Karlowsky
Philippe Lagacé-Wiens
Andrew Walkty
Michael R Mulvey
Daryl J Hoban
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. ggzhanel@pcs.mb.ca
Source
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Sep;62(1):67-80
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Canada
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Gram-Negative Bacteria - drug effects - isolation & purification
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections - microbiology
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - microbiology
Gram-Positive Cocci - drug effects - isolation & purification
Humans
Intensive Care Units - statistics & numerical data
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Population Surveillance - methods
Abstract
We tested the in vitro activity of 15 antimicrobials against Gram-positive cocci and 12 antimicrobials against Gram-negative bacilli versus 3931 isolates (20 most common organisms) obtained between September 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006, from 19 intensive care units (ICUs) across Canada. The most active (based upon MIC only) agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis were dalbavancin, daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin with MIC(90) (microg/mL) of 0.06 and
PubMed ID
18513913 View in PubMed
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Assessing health care in Canada's North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264982
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28436
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
THEORY AND METHODS Assessing health care in Canada’s North: what can we learn from national and regional surveys? T. Kue Young1*, Carmina Ng2 and Susan Chatwood3,4 1School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 2Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
  1 document  
Author
T Kue Young
Carmina Ng
Susan Chatwood
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2015;74:28436
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
975329
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Care Surveys/methods
Humans
Male
Northwest Territories
Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
Sensitivity and specificity
Young Adult
Abstract
Health surveys are a rich source of information on a variety of health issues, including health care.
This article compares various national and regional surveys in terms of their geographical coverage with respect to the Canadian North, especially their Aboriginal population, and the comparability of the survey contents relating to health care.
Three surveys were selected as providing some information on health care, with separate estimates for the North and its Aboriginal populations. They are the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) and the First Nations Regional Health Survey (RHS).
Different surveys focus on different categories of Aboriginal people, and no single survey has covered all categories of Aboriginal people in the North consistently. RHS is targeted at the on-reserve First Nations population only. APS and CCHS sample the off-reserve First Nations population as well as Métis and Inuit. To achieve adequate sample size for North-South comparisons and comparisons among Aboriginal groups within the North, several cycles of the biennial/annual CCHS can be merged, producing a large data set with consistent coverage of topics using comparable questions. The content areas of the 3 surveys can be broadly categorized as health status, health determinants and health care. Substantial variation exists across surveys in the domains covered. There are also changes over time in terms of definitions, questions and even basic concepts. The available health care content of the 3 surveys focus on access to different types of health services, contact with different categories of health professionals, unmet health needs and the use of preventive services. Many important dimensions of health care are not covered. Not all these basic indicators are available for the North or its Aboriginal populations.
A comprehensive survey of health care in the North with sufficient sample size to provide reliable estimates for its subpopulations - urban and remote, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal, and First Nations, Inuit and Métis - would provide useful information to decision-makers and service providers. Analytical studies can also be conducted to investigate the correlations and interactions among health status, health determinants and health care and assess whether such relationships differ among the different population groups.
PubMed ID
26214103 View in PubMed
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Bullying perspectives among rural youth: A mixed methods approach

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101096
Source
Rural and Remote Health. 2008 Apr-Jun;8(2):923
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-Jun 2008
Author
Kulig, JC
Hall, BL
Kalischuk RG
Author Affiliation
University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
Faculty of Social Work Lethbridge Division, University of Calgary, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
Source
Rural and Remote Health. 2008 Apr-Jun;8(2):923
Date
Apr-Jun 2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bullying
Canada
Descriptive study
Mixed method
Rural youth
Social structure
Survey
Violence
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have examined violence among rural youth even though it is recognized as a societal concern. A mixed method, descriptive study was conducted to examine violence among rural youth including their perceptions and experiences of it. This article focuses specifically on the perceptions and experiences of bullying among rural youth that were generated from the Qualitative Phase One interviews and Quantitative Phase Two responses.METHOD: A mixed method study was conducted in two separate phases. The information generated from the Qualitative Phase One (n = 52) was used to develop a survey instrument employed in the subsequent Quantitative Phase Two (n = 180). The youth who were involved in each phase lived in different geographic areas of a Western Canadian province. The qualitative phase generated a number of comments about the experience of being bullied or how it felt to be a bully. In the survey instrument, specific questions related to bullying were embedded within it. Demographic information was collected in both phases of the study. Research assistants were used to collect the data in each phase. The transcripts from the qualitative phase were analyzed for categories and themes. The survey instrument included demographic questions and seventy questions that included a four-point Likert scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS v14 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL, USA). For this article, the survey questions that focused on bullying were considered alongside the qualitative comments in order to more fully understand the perceptions and viewpoints of rural youth regarding this particular aspect of violence.RESULTS: Conducting a mixed method study provides a more in-depth understanding of bullying among youth in the rural context. The pain and humiliation of being bullied provided a personalized understanding of the survey responses that indicated which youth are targets of bullying. For example, comments were made about being picked on because of personal characteristics such as being overweight or dressing in an unacceptable manner. In addition, bullies openly talked about the power they gained from their role. The frequency responses to the questions in the survey confirmed that bullies obtain power from their behavior and that youth who are different are bullied. The participants also noted that something needed to be done to address bullying but remarked that they would not seek professionals' help.DISCUSSION: The findings negate the myth that rural places are ideal places to raise children. Although the youth did not identify that they would access professionals, it is important for members of rural communities to acknowledge bullying, its impacts and how they can prevent it. Working from the social structure of rural communities is a first step in this process.CONCLUSION: Rural communities will benefit as a whole if bullying, an important societal concern, is addressed. Building on the social structure of rural communities is important, However, listening to rural youth themselves is the key if true change is to be implemented.
PubMed ID
18473668 View in PubMed
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Changes in adiposity and body mass index from late childhood to adult life in the Trois-Rivières study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194005
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2001 May-Jun;13(3):349-55
Publication Type
Article
Author
F. Trudeau
R J Shephard
F. Arsenault
L. Laurencelle
Author Affiliation
Département des sciences de l'activité physique, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada. Francois_Trudeau@uqtr.uquebec.ca
Source
Am J Hum Biol. 2001 May-Jun;13(3):349-55
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - physiology
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Analysis of Variance
Anthropometry - methods
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Child
Child Development - physiology
Female
Growth - physiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Physical Education and Training
Predictive value of tests
Quebec
Sex Characteristics
Skinfold thickness
Abstract
This study explored tracking of the body mass index (BMI) in a representative subgroup of subjects (95 women and 96 men) who were involved in the Trois-Rivières Growth and Development Study by testing autocorrelations between data for 10, 11, and 12 years and corresponding values at 34 years of age. Tracking of skinfold measurements (subscapular, triceps, suprailiac, and abdominal, and their sum) over the same intervals (60 women and 52 men) was also evaluated. After the age of 12 years, subjects showed a similar development of absolute values, whether they were from the experimental or the control group. Gains of the BMI and skinfold thicknesses showed expected gender differences. In particular, men showed larger gains of the BMI and abdominal skinfolds, whereas women had larger gains in the triceps skinfold. Increases in the sum of four skinfolds did not differ significantly between men and women, suggesting that the larger BMI gains in men were caused by a larger relative increase of fat-free mass in the men. Tracking coefficients for the BMI were lower in men than in women between 10, 11, 12, and 34 years (r = 0.43-0.49 vs. r = 0.64-0.70, P
PubMed ID
11460900 View in PubMed
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The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in the Canadian North.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1742
Source
American Journal of Epidemiology. 1985 Apr; 121(4):598-604.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1985
Author
G Y Minuk
N. Ling
B. Postl
J G Waggoner
L E Nicolle
J H Hoofnagle
Author Affiliation
University of Calgary
Source
American Journal of Epidemiology. 1985 Apr; 121(4):598-604.
Date
1985
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
HBV
Tuberculosis
HAV
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Hepatitis A - immunology
Hepatitis B - blood - epidemiology
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens - immunology
Hepatitis B e Antigens - immunology
Humans
Infant
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Radioimmunoassay
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Abstract
Hepatitis B virus infections are common in the Eskimo (Inuit) populations of the world. In this study, serologic markers of hepatitis B infection were measured in 172 inhabitants (78%) of an isolated Canadian Inuit settlement. Evidence of hepatitis B infection was found in 22% of residents. The prevalence increased with age, being uncommon under the age of 20 (7%), yet present in the majority of inhabitants over the age of 40 (64%). Sera from four individuals (2.3%) were hepatitis B surface antigen- (HBsAg) positive. All four HBsAg carriers were negative for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and DNA polymerase, but positive for antibody to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe). These data suggest that hepatitis B infection has become relatively uncommon in the inhabitants of this community born during the past 20-30 years. The apparent decline in prevalence did not appear to be related to recent demographic or socioeconomic changes in the area.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1946.
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Climate change, health, and vulnerability in Canadian northern Aboriginal communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature79337
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Dec;114(12):1964-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2006
the health of Canadians in all regions of the country. Assessing the impacts that these climate changes are having or may have on peoples’ lives requires a combination of disciplinary approaches and methods (Patz et al. 2000). Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada is in
  1 document  
Author
Furgal Christopher
Seguin Jacinthe
Author Affiliation
Nasivvik Centre for Inuit Health and Changing Environments, Public Health Research Unit, Centre hospitalier Universitaire du Québec-Centre hospitalier Université Laval, Quebec, Canada. chrisfurgal@trentu.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Dec;114(12):1964-70
Date
Dec-2006
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
561338
Keywords
Acclimatization
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate
Environmental Health - methods - standards
Health Services Accessibility - standards
Health status
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada's North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate--changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.
PubMed ID
17185292 View in PubMed
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Comparative seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in the Canadian Arctic and an urban center.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1986
Source
Journal of Medical Virology. 1988 Mar;24(3):299-307.
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1988
Author
Preiksaitis, J.K.
Larke, R.P.B.
Froese, G.J.
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta
Source
Journal of Medical Virology. 1988 Mar;24(3):299-307.
Date
Mar-1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Infant adoption
Infant feeding
Serological surveys
Adolescent
Antibodies, Viral - isolation & purification
Arctic Regions
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cytomegalovirus - immunology
Cytomegalovirus Infections - epidemiology - immunology
Epidemiologic Methods
Ethnic Groups
Humans
Infant
Urban Population
Abstract
We conducted a seroepidemiologic study of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among 9,928 Inuit (Eskimo), Dene (Indian) and non-native inhabitants of the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada between April 1983 and March 1985. 4,184 inhabitants of Edmonton, a large predominantly white urban center served as controls. Sera were screened for antibody to CMV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The prevalence rates of CMV antibody increased with age in all ethnic groups. By the age of two years 69.2 percent of Dene, 63.5 percent of Inuit, 33.3 percent of non-native and 22.9 percent of Edmonton children had CMV antibody. Over the age of five years Inuit children had higher rates of CMV antibody than Dene children (P less than .05) reflecting differences in infant adoption, breastfeeding practices and patterns of child care in the two native groups. By the age of 15 to 19 years 81.1 percent of Dene and 88.5 percent of Inuit women had CMV antibody compared to 48.8 percent of non-native and 50.9 percent of Edmonton women (P less than .05). Native children had higher prevalence rates than non-native children living in the NWT (P less than .05). Compared to similarly aged Edmonton residents, non-native children in the NWT 2 to 4 years and 5 to 9 years of age had a higher prevalence of CMV antibody (P less than .05). We observed a higher prevalence rate of CMV antibody among non-native children (10-14 years) and young women (15-19 years) living in predominantly native communities compared to those living in predominantly non-native communities in the NWT (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2027.
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Computer-generated dot maps as an epidemiologic tool: investigating an outbreak of toxoplasmosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199994
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):815-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
S B Eng
D H Werker
A S King
S A Marion
A. Bell
J L Issac-Renton
G S Irwin
W R Bowie
Author Affiliation
Capital Regional District Health Department, Victoria, B.C; Canada. steven.eng@cephealth.org
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):815-9
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Computer Graphics
Disease Outbreaks
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Incidence
Maps as Topic
Middle Aged
Pregnancy
Toxoplasma - isolation & purification
Toxoplasmosis - epidemiology
Water supply
Abstract
We used computer-generated dot maps to examine the spatial distribution of 94 Toxoplasma gondii infections associated with an outbreak in British Columbia, Canada. The incidence among patients served by one water distribution system was 3.52 times that of patients served by other sources. Acute T. gondii infection among 3, 812 pregnant women was associated with the incriminated distribution system.
Notes
Cites: JAMA. 1976 Oct 18;236(16):1849-52787562
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):1928-332229374
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Aug;22(4):731-418225750
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1974 Sep;100(3):186-964411988
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Apr;20(4):781-97795074
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1995 Jul;85(7):944-87604918
Cites: Lancet. 1997 Jul 19;350(9072):173-79250185
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jun;18(6):853-61; quiz 8628086543
PubMed ID
10603218 View in PubMed
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Cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study of the prevalence of cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus infection in a Canadian Inuit (Eskimo) community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1817
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1986; 18(1):19-23.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1986
Author
L E Nicolle
G Y Minuk
B. Postl
N. Ling
D L Madden
J H Hoofnagle
Author Affiliation
University of Calgary
Source
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1986; 18(1):19-23.
Date
1986
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Chesterfield Inlet
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cytomegalovirus - immunology
Cytomegalovirus Infections - epidemiology - transmission
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Epidemiologic Methods
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Hepatitis A - immunology
Hepatitis B - immunology
Herpesviridae Infections - epidemiology - transmission
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Simplexvirus - immunology
Abstract
The prevalence of antibody to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was determined, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, in a cross-sectional serologic survey of an isolated northern Canadian Inuit (Eskimo) community. The population studied included 155 Inuit and 11 Caucasian residents. By 6 years of age, 80% of the Inuit population were seropositive for CMV and 100% for herpes simplex virus. While only 7/63 Inuit greater than 20 years were seronegative for CMV, 5/11 Caucasian residents were seronegative (p = 0.01). For the Inuit population, no association between seropositivity for CMV and seropositivity for hepatitis A or hepatitis B was observed. This prevalence survey shows a serologic profile for infection with CMV and HSV in this northern Inuit community with an early age of acquisition and high prevalence of infection characteristic of socioeconomically deprived populations throughout the world, and is distinct from that observed in many other North American populations.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2023.
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36 records – page 1 of 4.