Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
A novel methodological design comprising multilevel assessments of exposures of examinees to controlled ambient air pollution according to the data of route stations was developed to examine the population of large towns. The design was tested in 4 surveys of Moscow residents (apparently healthy and outpatients with a number of chronic diseases). The findings indicate the fundamental possibility of altering the traditional differential design of biomedical surveys of the population, by introducing more evidence-based regression analyses and dividing the contributions of individual chemicals to the observed changes in health indices.
To study the factors of exposure and to assess health risk in different age groups under exposure to chemical contaminants in drinking water in Novodvinsk.
Local exposure factors were studied by questionnaire in 1628 men in three age groups: 1-6 years, 7-17 years, 18 years and older. In the risk model three ways of exposure: inhalation, oral, and skin have been included. To assess the noncarcinogenic risk cumulative risk indices (CRI) were calculated, to evaluate a carcinogenic risk--the total carcinogenic risk (TCR), taking into account the correction for the age-specific cancer-causing potential was calculated.
Quantity of water used for drinking for 1 kg of body weight in children of 1-6 years was 109 ml/kg-day, 7-17 years--55 ml/kg-day, and adults--34 ml/kg-day. At concentrations of contaminants of drinking water at 90th and 98th percentile the risk to the blood system exceeds the allowable level only for children in the group of 1-6 years (CRI = 1,8 and 3,7, respectively), taking into account age-specific for the total population TCR amounted to 4.3 x 10(-5) and 9.3 x 10(-5) correspondingly.
The paper gives an algorithm, a procedure for calculation of aircraft noise, and its spread modeling. The performed investigations have provided guidelines that will become the first Russian official guiding document for assessing a risk from aviation noise to human health.
The paper analyzes of the currently available guidelines for assessing damages (in kind and value terms) caused by environmental factors to the population's health. The contributions of various diseases, the quality of the environment, bad habits, and other internal and external factors to the mortality structure in Russia are compared. The authors show it important to study the comparative role of the quality of life and its style, environmental pollution, the population's subjective perception of risks in the formation of health damages.
Ambient air pollution by suspended matter is an environmental factor that has the greatest influence on the health status of the majority of the Russian Federation's population. There is extensive epidemiological and clinical evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution by suspended matter and its fine-dispersed fractions PM10 and PM2.5 in particular, poses a serious threat to human health. The existing Russian single and average daily maximum permissible concentrations of suspended matter are not a high risk from this type of ambient air pollution and fail to assess human health damage in full measure. To reduce the concentrations of suspended matter and their action on man is currently the worldwide priority task whose performance will save much money. There is a need to change an air pollution monitoring system (continuous monitoring of fine suspended matter of PM10 and PM2.5), as well as to substantiate and introduce Russian hygienic standards for fine suspended matter (PM10 and PM2.5).
Krasnoyarsk Krai is a region with developed mining and processing industries, notoriously known industries, as sources of carcinogenic emission. For 55 administrative units of the Krai 303 large enterprises' industrial emissions were preliminary prioritized and their location was designated. Only 52% out of the carcinogens emitted into the ambient air by industries were controlled, in other environments the figures ranged from 20% (soil, food) to 48% (drinking water), 10 carcinogens were not controlled in the environment at all. Based on the results of ranking carcinogenic emission and analysis of the carcinogens monitoring in the environment in 2007-2011 31 substances were selected. A comparative analysis of multiple environmental carcinogenic risks showed that 78% of the areas, based on the receipt ofcarcinogensfrom two media, and 80% ofthe areas taking into account the receipt ofcarcinogens from three media attributed to the alarming level of risk for population, that requires continuous monitoring and routine health interventions for its mitigation. The maximal multiple environmental risk values that took into account inputs from all sources were close to the upper boundary alarming level of risk, in Divnogorsk (7,80E-04), Norilsk (7,97 E-04), Krasnoyarsk (8,84E-04) and Achinsk (9,4 E-04). The greatest inputs to total individual cancer risk from polluted ambient air were made by benzene, chromium VI, formaldehyde and nickel, from drinking water--by arsenic, aldrin and heptachlor from soil--by arsenic and lead. The ambient air input into total multiple environmental carcinogenic risk ranged from 31.5 to 99.5%, drinking water input--from 0.5 to 68.5%, soil--up to 0.1%. Areas with maximum levels of total carcinogenic risk are characterized by the highest levels of average long-term indices of cancer development. The study discussed in this article has screening nature. Further in-depth researches for carcinogenic and toxic multimedia risks are required.
The paper presents the results of some guidance studies assessing the risk, recently conducted at the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Health, such as validation of toxicological and hygienic criteria for risk assessment upon short- and long-term human exposures to deleterious substances; development and introduction of methods for assessing health risk and damage, by applying computer technologies; elaboration of guidelines for establishing the cause-and-effect relationship of changes in health indices to those in the environment; characterization of damage caused by ambient air pollution in Russian cities and towns; possibilities of using the guidance for assessing the risk to improve sociohygienic monitoring. It also gives the results of testing scientific developments in the assessment of a multienvironmental risk in the areas exposed to emission from aluminum works (Khakasia) and chemical and petrochemical enterprises (Samara Region) and in the determination of contribution of emission from the Moscow fuel-and-energy complex to risks and damages to human health, caused by ambient air pollution. The urgent issues of further development of modern trends in risk guidance studies are determined.