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62 records – page 1 of 7.

Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 26;171(44):3168-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-26-2009
Author
Loft Steffen
Author Affiliation
Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab, Afdeling for Miljø og Sundhed, Det Sundhedsvidenskabelige Fakultet, Københavns Universitet, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1014 København K, Denmark. s.loft@pubhealth.ku.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 26;171(44):3168-71
Date
Oct-26-2009
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Animals
Cattle
Climate
Greenhouse Effect
Health
Humans
Methane - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Pollen
Risk factors
World Health
Abstract
Air quality, health and climate change are closely connected. Ozone depends on temperature and the greenhouse gas methane from cattle and biomass. Pollen presence depends on temperature and CO2. The effect of climate change on particulate air pollution is complex, but the likely net effect is greater health risks. Reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions by reduced livestock production and use of combustion for energy production, transport and heating will also improve air quality. Energy savings in buildings and use of CO2 neutral fuels should not deteriorate indoor and outdoor air quality.
PubMed ID
19857393 View in PubMed
Less detail

Centennial-scale changes in the global carbon cycle during the last deglaciation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258639
Source
Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):616-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-30-2014
Author
Shaun A Marcott
Thomas K Bauska
Christo Buizert
Eric J Steig
Julia L Rosen
Kurt M Cuffey
T J Fudge
Jeffery P Severinghaus
Jinho Ahn
Michael L Kalk
Joseph R McConnell
Todd Sowers
Kendrick C Taylor
James W C White
Edward J Brook
Source
Nature. 2014 Oct 30;514(7524):616-9
Date
Oct-30-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antarctic Regions
Atmosphere - chemistry
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Greenhouse Effect
Greenland
History, Ancient
Ice Cover
Isotopes
Methane - analysis
Oceans and Seas
Water - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
Global climate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are correlated over recent glacial cycles. The combination of processes responsible for a rise in atmospheric CO2 at the last glacial termination (23,000 to 9,000?years ago), however, remains uncertain. Establishing the timing and rate of CO2 changes in the past provides critical insight into the mechanisms that influence the carbon cycle and helps put present and future anthropogenic emissions in context. Here we present CO2 and methane (CH4) records of the last deglaciation from a new high-accumulation West Antarctic ice core with unprecedented temporal resolution and precise chronology. We show that although low-frequency CO2 variations parallel changes in Antarctic temperature, abrupt CO2 changes occur that have a clear relationship with abrupt climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. A significant proportion of the direct radiative forcing associated with the rise in atmospheric CO2 occurred in three sudden steps, each of 10 to 15 parts per million. Every step took place in less than two centuries and was followed by no notable change in atmospheric CO2 for about 1,000 to 1,500?years. Slow, millennial-scale ventilation of Southern Ocean CO2-rich, deep-ocean water masses is thought to have been fundamental to the rise in atmospheric CO2 associated with the glacial termination, given the strong covariance of CO2 levels and Antarctic temperatures. Our data establish a contribution from an abrupt, centennial-scale mode of CO2 variability that is not directly related to Antarctic temperature. We suggest that processes operating on centennial timescales, probably involving the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, seem to be influencing global carbon-cycle dynamics and are at present not widely considered in Earth system models.
PubMed ID
25355363 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278328
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Apr;50:39-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Irina Naroznova
Jacob Møller
Charlotte Scheutz
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Apr;50:39-48
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Methane - analysis
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste management
Abstract
This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger.
PubMed ID
26878771 View in PubMed
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Characterization of fine fraction mined from two Finnish landfills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276212
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Jan;47(Pt A):34-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Tiina J Mönkäre
Marja R T Palmroth
Jukka A Rintala
Source
Waste Manag. 2016 Jan;47(Pt A):34-9
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Finland
Methane - analysis
Mining
Refuse Disposal
Solid Waste - analysis
Waste Disposal Facilities
Waste Management - methods
Abstract
A fine fraction (FF) was mined from two Finnish municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Kuopio (1- to 10-year-old, referred as new landfill) and Lohja (24- to 40-year-old, referred as old landfill) in order to characterize FF. In Kuopio the FF (
PubMed ID
25817722 View in PubMed
Less detail

Climate Change 2007: a world melting from the top down.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95640
Source
Nature. 2007 Apr 12;446(7137):718-221
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-12-2007

Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261744
Source
Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):171-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-9-2015
Author
E A G Schuur
A D McGuire
C. Schädel
G. Grosse
J W Harden
D J Hayes
G. Hugelius
C D Koven
P. Kuhry
D M Lawrence
S M Natali
D. Olefeldt
V E Romanovsky
K. Schaefer
M R Turetsky
C C Treat
J E Vonk
Source
Nature. 2015 Apr 9;520(7546):171-9
Date
Apr-9-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Carbon Cycle
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Climate change
Feedback
Freezing
Methane - analysis
Permafrost - chemistry
Seawater - chemistry
Uncertainty
Abstract
Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.
PubMed ID
25855454 View in PubMed
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Determination of waste decay rate for a large Finnish landfill by calibrating methane generation models on the basis of methane recovery and emissions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257660
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2013 Oct;31(10):979-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Kai Sormunen
Tuomas Laurila
Jukka Rintala
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2013 Oct;31(10):979-85
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Finland
Methane - analysis
Models, Theoretical
Waste Disposal Facilities
Water Pollutants, Chemical - chemistry
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the methane (CH(4)) generation factor (k) and CH(4) generation potential (L) for bulk waste in order to calibrate a CH(4) generation model (USEPA Landgem 3.02) and provide information on the remaining CH(4) generation potential in a large (54 ha) municipal solid waste landfill located in a boreal climate. The CH(4) generation model was calibrated by actual CH(4) recovery and emission measurement data. Moreover, waste characterisation information from a previous study was considered.The appropriate k for bulk waste was 0.18 in the studied landfill, which indicated a higher rate of degradation than proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as a default k value of 0.09 for wet conditions in boreal and temperate climes, whereas the calibrated L of 100 m(3)/t was lower than estimated on the basis of a previous waste characterisation study. The results demonstrate the importance of model calibration, as inappropriate model parameters may result in a large discrepancy (approximately 100 % or 119 million m(3) having an energy equivalent of nearly 1.2 TWh) in cumulative CH(4) generation estimates within a 18-year timescale (2012–30) at the studied landfill.
PubMed ID
23797297 View in PubMed
Less detail

Differences in the Spatial Variability Among CO2, CH 4, and N 2O Gas Fluxes from an Urban Forest Soil in Japan.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266774
Source
Ambio. 2015 Feb;44(1):55-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Sonoko Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura
Ayaka Wenhong Kishimoto-Mo
Noriko Oura
Seiko Sekikawa
Seichiro Yonemura
Shigeto Sudo
Atsushi Hayakawa
Kazunori Minamikawa
Yusuke Takata
Hiroshi Hara
Source
Ambio. 2015 Feb;44(1):55-66
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Cities
Environmental monitoring
Forests
Geography
Japan
Methane - analysis
Nitrous Oxide - analysis
Soil
Abstract
The spatial variability of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes from forest soil with high nitrogen (N) deposition was investigated at a rolling hill region in Japan. Gas fluxes were measured on July 25th and December 5th, 2008 at 100 points within a 100 ? 100 m grid. Slope direction and position influenced soil characteristics and site-specific emissions were found. The CO(2) flux showed no topological difference in July, but was significantly lower in December for north-slope with coniferous trees. Spatial dependency of CH(4) fluxes was stronger than that of CO(2) or N(2)O and showed a significantly higher uptake in hill top, and emissions in the valley indicating strong influence of water status. N(2)O fluxes showed no spatial dependency and exhibited high hot spots at different topology in July and December. The high N deposition led to high N(2)O fluxes and emphasized the spatial variability.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(10):e7629624204610
PubMed ID
24736940 View in PubMed
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Different Apparent Gas Exchange Coefficients for CO2 and CH4: Comparing a Brown-Water and a Clear-Water Lake in the Boreal Zone during the Whole Growing Season.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272726
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Oct 6;49(19):11388-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-6-2015
Author
Miitta Rantakari
Jouni Heiskanen
Ivan Mammarella
Tiina Tulonen
Jessica Linnaluoma
Paula Kankaala
Anne Ojala
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Oct 6;49(19):11388-94
Date
Oct-6-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atmosphere
Carbon
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Ecosystem
Finland
Lakes - chemistry
Methane - analysis
Seasons
Abstract
The air-water exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) is a central process during attempts to establish carbon budgets for lakes and landscapes containing lakes. Lake-atmosphere diffusive gas exchange is dependent on the concentration gradient between air and surface water and also on the gas transfer velocity, often described with the gas transfer coefficient k. We used the floating-chamber method in connection with surface water gas concentration measurements to estimate the gas transfer velocity of CO2 (kCO2) and CH4 (kCH4) weekly throughout the entire growing season in two contrasting boreal lakes, a humic oligotrophic lake and a clear-water productive lake, in order to investigate the earlier observed differences between kCO2 and kCH4. We found that the seasonally averaged gas transfer velocity of CH4 was the same for both lakes. When the lakes were sources of CO2, the gas transfer velocity of CO2 was also similar between the two study lakes. The gas transfer velocity of CH4 was constantly higher than that of CO2 in both lakes, a result also found in other studies but for reasons not yet fully understood. We found no differences between the lakes, demonstrating that the difference between kCO2 and kCH4 is not dependent on season or the characteristics of the lake.
PubMed ID
26359720 View in PubMed
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62 records – page 1 of 7.