Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels
Twenty-one species of macroalgae (four Chlorophyta, eight Rhodophyta, and nine Phaeophyta) from the Kongsfjord (Norwegian Arctic) were examined for their response to nutrient enrichment (nitrate and phosphate) in the summer period. The enzymatic activities related to nutrient assimilation, external carbonic anhydrase (CAext, EC 188.8.131.52), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 184.108.40.206), and alkaline phosphatase (AP, EC 220.127.116.11), as well as the biochemical composition (total C and N, soluble carbohydrates, soluble proteins, and pigments) were measured. CAext activity was present in all species, and showed a general decrease after nutrient enrichment. Inversely, NR activity increased in most of the species examined. Changes in pigment ratios pointed to the implication of light harvesting system in the acclimation strategy. Despite enzymatic and pigmentary response, the Arctic seaweeds can be regarded as not being N-limited even in summer, as shown by the slight effect of nutrient enrichment on biochemical composition. The exception being the nitrophilic species Monostroma arcticum and, to a lesser extent, Acrosiphonia sp. For the rest of the species studied, changes in total internal C and N, soluble proteins, soluble carbohydrates, pigment content, and the internal pool of inorganic N were recorded only for particular species and no general pattern was shown. Acclimation to unexpected nutrient input seemed to ensure the maintenance of a stable biomass composition, rather than an optimized use of the newly available resource (except for the nitrophilic species). This indicates a high degree of resilience of the algal community to a disruption in the natural nutrient availability pattern.
1. Single low-threshold inactivating (LTI or T-type) Ca2+ channels of undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells (clone N1E-115) were investigated using the patch-clamp technique. 2. Single-channel conductance, gi, for Ca2+, Sr2+ or Ba2+ as a permeant cation was similar (7.2 pS). Mean channel open time, tau op, was also practically independent of the divalent ion species; it decreased from 0.7 to 0.3 ms between -40 and 0 mV. 3. Modification of the calcium channel selectivity by lowering the external Ca2+ concentration to 10(-8) M produced an increase in gi for Na+ and Li+ ions and a shift of potential-dependent characteristics in the hyperpolarizing direction. Voltage sensitivity and absolute values of tau op were also changed. These changes were dependent on both permeant monovalent ion type and concentration. 4. At high [Na+]o, tau op was almost potential independent (congruent to 0.3 ms). Decrease in [Na+]o and substitution of Li+ for Na+ increased tau op and the steepness of its potential dependency. 5. The divalent and monovalent cations that were tested had much smaller effect on the mean intraburst shut time, tau cl(f), which was nearly independent of membrane potential (congruent to 0.6 ms). By contrast, mean burst duration was strongly potential dependent and noticeably affected by permeant ion type. 6. All kinetic changes were analysed in terms of a four-state sequential model for channel activation. According to this model the channel enters the open state through three closed states. Transitions between closed states can be formally related to the transmembrane movement of two charged gating particles (m2 process). The interaction between ion flux and a sterical region of the Ca2+ channel selectivity filter may, depending on ion transfer rate and ionic radius, lead to a local increase of the dielectric constant, resulting in redistribution of the electric field and changes in potential dependency of tau op.
Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ? 0.05 to 0.33 ? 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ? 0.014 to 0.095 ? 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ? 0.0035 to 0.053 ? 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ? 0.4 and 5.3 ? 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ? 1.3 to 42 ? 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2002 Apr 22;289(1-3):41-712049405
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Cites: Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1976;160(3):303-12988688
A comparative study was carried out in the properties of ATPase system of the skeletal muscle nuclei in the rabbits in norm and with experimental muscular dystrophy conditioned by E-avitaminosis. It is shown that in the system, containing 1.5 mM of MgCl2, ATPase system of the nuclei is activated by sodium and potassium ions. In norm maximum activation is observed with their presence in the medium, the concentration being 80 and 70 mM, respectively. With experimental muscular dystrophy maximum activating concentrations decrease and are equal for both cations - 30 mM. Activation of the enzymatic system by these ions is specific because the introduction of equimolar quantities of cholin-chloride or lithium, cesium ions instead of sodium ions into the incubation medium evokes no activation of the ATPase system of the rabbit skeletal muscles both in norm and with experimental muscular dystrophy. A simultaneous presence of sodium and potassium ions in optimum concentrations in the incubation medium makes for an increase of ATPase activity to the same extent as the presence of one of these cations. Oubain, a specific inhibitor of Mg2+, Na+, K+- ATPase, taken in the concentrations of 10(-4) and 10(-3) M did not decrease the intensity of ATP hydrolysis and its activation conditioned by the presence of sodium or potassium. A conclusion is made that Mg2+, Na+, K+-ATPase taking part in the work of "sodium pump" is absent in the nuclei of skeletal muscles.
The effect of age on signaling lipids contents in rat liver and different brain regions (hippocampus, neocortex) were studied. The contents of free fatty acids in the brain, diacylglycerol in liver and ceramide in all tissues studied have been found to increase with age. Age-dependent accumulation of neutral and sphingolipids evokes the violation of cell sensitivity to extracellular signals.