OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a shortened life expectancy and increased somatic comorbidity with, e.g., cardiovascular disorders. One major risk factor for these disorders is the metabolic syndrome, which has been reported to have a higher frequency in schizophrenic patients. Our objective was to study the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a population-based birth cohort. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 5613 members of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort who participated in the field study from 1997 to 1998. Subjects were divided into 4 diagnostic categories (DSM-III-R): (1) schizophrenia (N = 31), (2) other functional psychoses (N = 22), (3) nonpsychotic disorders (N = 105), and (4) no psychiatric hospital treatment (N = 5455, comparison group). Subjects were assessed for the presence of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in subjects with schizophrenia compared with the comparison group (19% vs. 6%, p = .010). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with other psychoses was 5%. After controlling for sex, the results of logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia was 3.7 (95% CI = 1.5 to 9.0). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia even at such a relatively young age underscores the need to select antipsychotic medications with no or little capability to induce metabolic side effects. Also, developing comprehensive efforts directed at controlling weight and diet and improving physical activity are needed.
Higher dairy product intake has shown beneficial effects on body weight, blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Caucasian populations. This study evaluated dairy product intake and its association with body weight and CVD risk profile among a population undergoing a dietary transition in Canada, the Nunavik Inuit.
Data were collected from August 27 to October 1, 2004, in the 14 villages of Nunavik on a Canadian research icebreaker (Canadian Coast Guard ship Amundsen). Dairy product intake and calcium intake were evaluated in 543 Inuit using a food frequency questionnaire. Physiological (lipid profile, fasting glucose, and insulin) and anthropometrical measurements were also obtained.
The range of median dairy product intake extended from 120 g/d in the lowest tertile to 290 g/d in the highest tertile. The median of calcium intake was 524 mg/d. Participants in the highest tertile of dairy product consumption had higher body weight, fat-free mass, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and fasting glucose concentrations than participants in the lowest tertile (all p
The longitudinal associations between a dietary pattern (DP) and cardiometabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence were investigated in a cohort of adults with severe obesity.
The analysis included 2,037 individuals with severe obesity (>34 and >38 kg/m(2) for men and women, respectively) from the Swedish Obese Subjects study repeatedly followed up for 10 years. Reduced rank regression was used to identify a DP characterized by dietary energy density, saturated fat intake, and fiber density. Mixed models examined relationships between repeated measures of DP z-scores and cardiometabolic risk factors. Cox proportional hazards models assessed relationships between DP scores and CVD incidence.
An energy-dense, high-saturated-fat, and low-fiber DP was derived. A one-unit increase in the DP z-score between follow-ups was associated with an increase in weight [ß (SE)] (1.71?±?0.10 kg), waist circumference (1.49?±?0.07 cm), BMI (0.60?±?0.34 kg/m2), serum cholesterol (0.06?±?0.01 mmol/l), and serum insulin (1.22?±?0.17 mmol/l; all P?
1] Department of Non-communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK  Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, UK.
Postnatal growth patterns leading to obesity may have adverse influences on future cardiometabolic health. This study evaluated age and body mass index (BMI) at infant BMI peak (BMIP) and childhood BMI rebound (BMIR) in relation to adult cardiometabolic outcomes in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.
BMI at various ages was calculated from frequent height and weight measurements obtained from child health and welfare clinical records. Age and BMI at BMIP and BMIR were derived from random effect models fitted at >0-1.5 years (N=3 265) and >1.5-13 years (N=4 121). Cardiometabolic outcomes were obtained from a clinical examination at age 31 years. Multiple regression models were used to analyse associations between the derived growth parameters and cardiometabolic outcomes.
Age and BMI at BMIP were positively associated with adult BMI and waist circumference (WC), independently of birth weight and infant height growth (P
Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart.
Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923-32 (n = 16 209) were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported.
Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's rho = 0.25). Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54-0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52-0.91] for diabetes) (test for trend P
Cites: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Aug;24(8):1032-910951543
Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk.
In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (Â±1) years apart in the population-based VÃ¤sterbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included. Dietary intake was captured with a 64-item food frequency questionnaire. Percent changes in intake of dietary components, Healthy Diet Score and Dietary Inflammatory Index were calculated and related to body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and blood pressure at the second visit in multivariable regression analyses.
For both sexes, on group level, proportion of energy intake (E%) from carbohydrates and sucrose decreased (largest carbohydrate decrease among 40Â year-olds) and E% protein and total fat as well as saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (highest protein increase among 30Â year-olds and highest fat increase among 60Â year-olds) over the 10-year period. Also, E% trans-fatty acids decreased. On individual basis, for both sexes decreases in intake of cholesterol and trans-fatty acids were associated with lower BMI and serum cholesterol at second visit (all P?
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Cites: Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;61:18-2414660243
The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of risk factors related to insulin resistance. Metabolic syndrome is a strong risk factor for chronic metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and is related to nutritional factors, sleep patterns, work-related stress, fatigue, and physical activity - all of which are critical issues at sea. We have previously demonstrated a MS prevalence of 24.2% in Danish seafarers. This study aimed to follow the trend of MS after 2 years' intervention.
Out of 524 Danish seafarers (mean age 37.7 years) who underwent medical fit-for-duty examination by seamen's doctors at baseline, 141 seafarers (mean age 41.3 years) were tracked and re-examined after 2 years. At baseline all participants received general advice regarding lifestyle issues. Seafarers with MS were additionally given specific advice regarding treatment. The seafarers provided questionnaire information about their workplace on board, about treatment of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and about previously diagnosed type 2-diabetes. In order to define MS, we collected data about waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose.
Out of 35 (26.5%) seafarers who fulfilled the criteria for MS at follow-up, 18 had MS at baseline while 9 were incident cases. Two seafarers with MS at baseline ceased to qualify for this condition at follow-up. The prevalence of seafarers with MS at follow-up represents a minimal estimate because a proportion could not be assessed due to missing fasting blood tests. Smoking and alcohol consumption was not reduced.
In spite of the intervention, the prevalence of MS increased in this group of seafarers. This study indicates the limitations of individual health promotion and the need for corporate actions.