25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is associated with compromised bone mineralisation, fatigue, suppressed immune function and unsatisfactory skeletal muscle recovery. We investigated the risk of 25(OH)D insufficiency or deficiency in endurance athletes compared to sedentary non-athletes living at 64° north.
University student-athletes (TS) and sedentary students (SS) volunteered to participate in this study. TS engaged in regular exercise while SS exercised no more than 20 minutes/week. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) scores for participants were determined. Vitamin D intake was assessed using the National Cancer Institute's 24-hour food recall (ASA24). Fasting plasma 25(OH)D levels were quantified via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
TS reported higher activity levels than SS as assessed with MET-minutes/week and ranking of physical activity levels (p
Cites: Chem Biol. 2014 Mar 20;21(3):319-29 PMID 24529992
Self-efficacy has been found to be an important precondition for behavioral change in sedentary people. The current study examined the effectiveness and added value of including a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a 12-week lifestyle physical activity (PA) program.
Participants were randomly assigned to a standard-intervention group (without additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 116) or extra-intervention group (with additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 111). Body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular fitness, self-reported PA, and self-efficacy beliefs were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention period. Perceived adherence to the PA program was assessed postintervention.
At posttest, a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and decrease in BMI were found in both groups. Significant intervention effects emerged on PA behavior, self-efficacy, and program adherence, in favor of the extra-intervention group. Self-efficacy mediated the intervention effect on program adherence whereas no evidence was found for its role as mediator of PA change.
Adding a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a lifestyle PA program is a promising strategy to enhance the intervention effects on PA behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, and program adherence. However, the role of self-efficacy as mediator of the intervention effect on in PA was not fully supported.
To examine the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with risk of first major nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF) events.
Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed at baseline in a prospective cohort of 2,089 men aged 42 to 61years.
During a mean (SD) follow-up of 19.1(8.4) years, 522 nonfatal acute MI events, 198 acute all-cause nonfatal stroke events, and 221 nonfatal HF events were recorded. The hazard ratio per 1-metabolic-equivalent increase in CRF was 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) for nonfatal MI, 0.94 (95% CI0.87-1.01) for nonfatal stroke, and 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.91) for nonfatal HF events after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, serum creatinine, low-density lipoprotein levels, physical activity, and socioeconomic status). Further adjustment for left ventricular hypertrophy and resting heart rate did not attenuate these associations. Addition of CRF to conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors significantly improved both discrimination (C index) and category free net reclassification index (cf-NRI) for nonfatal MI (change in C index, 0.015 [95% CI 0.010-0.020] and change in cf-NRI 0.27, P
To assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and outcomes in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) cohort.
We conducted a retrospective study of 5641 patients (4282 men [76%] and 1359 women [24%]; mean ± SD age, 60.0±10.3 years) with coronary artery disease who participated in CR between July 1, 1996, and February 28, 2009. Based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs), patients were classified as low fitness (LFit) (8 METs).
Baseline fitness predicted long-term mortality: relative to the LFit group, patients with moderate fitness had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42-0.69), and those with high fitness a hazard ratio of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.24-0.44). Improvement in CRF at 12 weeks was associated with decreased overall mortality, with a 13% point reduction with each MET increase (P
Comment In: Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 May;88(5):431-723639495
To examine whether exposure to workplace stressors predicts changes in physical activity and the risk of insufficient physical activity.
Prospective data from the Finnish Public Sector Study. Repeated exposure to low job control, high job demands, low effort, low rewards and compositions of these (job strain and effort-reward imbalance) were assessed at Time 1 (2000-2002) and Time 2 (2004). Insufficient physical activity (
The prospective relationship between leisure-time cross-country skiing and any fatal events is uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of leisure-time cross-country skiing habits with the risk of all-cause mortality in a general population. A 12-month physical activity questionnaire was used at baseline to assess the frequency, average duration, and intensity of cross-country skiing in a prospective population-based cohort of 2087 middle-aged men from eastern Finland. Hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals) were calculated for all-cause mortality. During a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 26.1 (18.7-28.0) years, 1028 all-cause mortality outcomes were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several established risk factors and other potential confounders, when compared to men who did not do any cross-country skiing, the HRs (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality were 0.84 (0.73-0.97) and 0.80 (0.67-0.96) for men who did 1-200 and >200 metabolic equivalent-hours per year of cross-country skiing, respectively. Similarly, compared to men who did not do any cross-country skiing, the corresponding adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were 0.84 (0.72-0.97) and 0.82 (0.69-0.97) for men who did 1-60 min/wk and >60 min/wk of cross-country skiing, respectively. The associations were similar across several subgroups, except for evidence of effect modification by body mass index and history of diabetes. Total volume as well as duration of leisure-time cross-country skiing is each inversely and independently associated with all-cause mortality in a middle-aged Caucasian male population.
Research has shown network social capital associated with a range of health behaviours and conditions. Little is known about what social capital inequalities in health represent, and which social factors contribute to such inequalities.
Data come from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging Study (n=2707). A position generator was used to collect network data on social capital. Health outcomes included self-reported health (SRH), physical inactivity, and hypertension. Social capital inequalities in low SRH, physical inactivity, and hypertension were decomposed into demographic, socioeconomic, network and psychosocial determinants. The percentage contributions of each in explaining health disparities were calculated.
Across the three outcomes, higher educational attainment contributed most consistently to explaining social capital inequalities in low SRH (% C=30.8%), physical inactivity (15.9%), and hypertension (51.2%). Social isolation, contributed to physical inactivity (11.7%) and hypertension (18.2%). Sense of control (24.9%) and perceived cohesion (11.5%) contributed to low SRH. Age reduced or increased social capital inequalities in hypertension depending on the age category.
Interventions that include strategies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities and increase actual and perceived social connectivity may be most successful in reducing social capital inequalities in health.
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2011 Apr;56(2):139-5221327854
Cites: Health Place. 2011 Mar;17(2):606-1721296607
Cites: Res Aging. 1988 Dec;10(4):499-5163227153
Cites: Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000 Jun;71(2 Suppl):S1-1410925819
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2012 May;74(9):1362-722410270
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(5):545-571962226
Cites: Health Econ. 2005 Apr;14(4):429-3215495147
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;35(5):1211-916987848
Cites: J Public Health (Oxf). 2009 Mar;31(1):175-8319153095
Cites: J Health Soc Behav. 2009 Jun;50(2):149-6319537457
Cites: Soc Sci Med. 2009 Aug;69(3):307-1619520474
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2009 Oct;99(10):1856-6319150915
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2010 Feb;55(1):71-419798467
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2010 Aug;55(4):347-5120063112
Cites: J Health Soc Behav. 2011 Mar;52(1):58-7321362612
Cites: Health Place. 2011 Mar;17(2):536-4421208822
Cites: Health Place. 2012 Mar;18(2):358-6522178009
Job strain has been associated with depressive symptoms, and depression has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD).
The associations between BMD and job strain have not been studied. We examined the relations between BMD, job strain, and depressive symptoms in a population-based group of young adults in Finland.
Ultrasonic measurement of BMD at the calcaneus was performed on 777 participants (men 45 %, aged 30-45) drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Job strain was assessed by self-administered questionnaires by the combination of job demands and job control. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a modified Beck Depression Inventory. The effects of job strain on BMD were studied with multivariable analyses with age, sex, BMI, vitamin D, and calcium intake, physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and depressive symptoms as covariates.
Depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower BMD T score in participants with high job strain (ß =?-0.241, p = 0.02), but depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with BMD in the low (ß =?-0.160, p = 0.26) and intermediate (ß = -0.042, p = 0.66) job strain categories.
The results suggest that job strain modifies the association between depressive symptoms and BMD. Depressed individuals with high work-related stress might be in increased risk of lower bone mineral density.
Exercise prescribed by the general practitioner may be an important health-improving intervention for inactive individuals with lifestyle diseases. The objective was to analyse changes in physical activity and health-related quality of life among participants in five similar 'Exercise on Prescription' (EoP) programmes.
The analysis was based on self-reported information in a follow-up design without a control group. The intervention comprised group training twice weekly in the first 2 months and once weekly in the following 2 months (24 sessions in all) combined with four to five sessions of motivational counselling. Self-report questionnaires were administered at the first contact and again after 4, 10 and 16 months. Outcome measures were changes in self-reported activity levels converted to metabolic equivalents and health-related quality of life measured by standard instruments (SF-12v2 and EQ-5D).
449 individuals (59% women, mean age 57 years) agreed to participate in the study. Dropout was considerable [123 (27%); 231 (52%) 297 (66%) after 4, 10 and 16 months]. Participants increased their physical activity level and health-related quality of life from baseline to 4 months and maintained improvement throughout the observation period. One in three to six participants increased their physical activity level and one in 4-10 achieved improvements in health-related quality of life.
Exercise on prescription can contribute to improvements in physical activity level and health-related quality of life in physically inactive patients with or at increased risk of developing lifestyle diseases. An acceptable number of participants achieved and maintained improvements in physical activity level and health-related quality of life.
To examine whether physical activity contributes to physical health functioning five to seven years later among middle-aged employees.
Baseline data were collected in 2000-2002 by questionnaire surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of Helsinki City. A follow-up survey was conducted among baseline respondents in 2007 (n=7330, response rate 83%). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting within the previous 12 months was asked at baseline. Physical health functioning was measured by physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 36 questionnaire. PCS mean scores were examined, as were poor and good PCS scores.
Vigorously active and conditioning exercisers had better subsequent physical health functioning than did the inactive and moderately active. Baseline health and functioning explained a major part of the differences found. Smoking, alcohol use and BMI further explained some of the differences. No clear differences in physical health functioning mean scores emerged during follow-up. In good physical health functioning, however some differences between conditioning and inactive women remained after adjustments.
Prospective associations between physical activity and physical health functioning were relatively weak, but high physical activity may help in maintaining good physical health functioning. Vigorous activity may be more beneficial than moderate activity.