Epidemiological data on chronic polyneuropathies, especially inflammatory types, is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the spectrum of causes and estimated prevalence of various polyneuropathy types in Vest-Agder, and to examine the clinical features of the Vest-Agder population of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In Vest-Agder county (population of 155 464), polyneuropathy patients are registered in a database and followed prospectively. We did a measure of the database on October 31 1999. A total of 192 patients were registered. The prevalence for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was 7.7 per 100 000 population. The course was relapsing in five of fifteen patients, progressive in four patients and slowly progressive in six of fifteen patients. Two of the fifteen patients had pure sensory symptoms. The mean Rankin disability score was 3.4 at maximal deficit and 2.1 at last follow-up. The prevalence of paraproteinemic polyneuropathy was 5.1 per 100 000 population. None of the patients with paraproteinemic polyneuropathy were worse than slightly disabled (disability score
The paper presents the results of a study of the influence of 43 exogenous and 14 endogenous factors on the occurrence of urolithiasis in children with regional features of the Primorye Territory being kept in mind. Multidimensional mathematical analysis was used to reveal continuous and intermittent risk factors of this disease. The authors show it necessary to take into account the findings in substantiating measures for primary prevention of urolithiasis among the children of the Primorye Territory.
Morbidity and mortality differences between populations, between ethnic groups and between individuals are not satisfactorily explained by the variation of risk factors. Differences in genetic susceptibility might be responsible for a part of the unexplained variation of coronary heart disease (CHD) rates. Genetic factors are also significant in determining the level of risk factors in individuals. Ample evidence links genetic factors to the levels of serum cholesterol, blood pressure and diabetes. Marked sex differences in CHD mortality also indicate the role of heredity in the development of the disease. The male:female ratio varies widely between different countries, as well as between different ethnic groups. These variations are difficult to explain by variation in environmental and behavioral differences between males and females alone. The degree of atherosclerosis in males and females varies, depending on the anatomic location of the atherosclerosis. Inherited disorders of metabolism and the variability of anatomic patterns provide additional indications of the role of genetics. The data accumulated in the Israeli Ischemic Heart Disease Study over 15 years reveal an ethnic variation of risk factors coupled with remarkably larger variation in disease rates. Patterns of incidence assessed in the national mortality data of the Israeli study and in histologic findings in the coronary arteries of infants from different ethnic groups are compatible with a hypothesis that ethnic and sex differences in early structural changes of the coronary arteries partly determine the susceptibility of the latter to the development of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, findings from our studies and the review of the evidence from genetic epidemiologic investigations indicate a significant role of genetics in determining the degree, time course and severity of the atherosclerotic process and of the occurrence of symptomatic CHD. This important role of the genetic component is relevant to preventive strategies offered as tools for reducing the burden of CHD. Research into genetic determinants of both susceptibility to atherosclerosis or clinical manifestation of CHD and individual response to preventive measures should be encouraged.
The present study examined whether changes in the incidence of infantile spasms could be used to evaluate changes in the quality of pre- and perinatal care over time. 107 children in 1960 to 1976, and 102 in 1977 to 1991, developed infantile spasms in southern Finland. The number of small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants and infants with neonatal hypoglycaemia decreased significantly. Brain malformations, malformation syndromes and patients with tuberous sclerosis increased; this probably reflects the development of more refined neuroradiological screening methods. SGA infants are probably more apt to develop infantile spasms than preterm infants appropriate for gestational age. Early prenatal factors seem to play a major role in the genesis of infantile spasms. Little can be done to reduce the incidence of infantile spasms, but every effort should be made to reduce the number of SGA infants by good prenatal care. Treatment of hypoglycaemia is important because infantile spasms might be preventable in these infants.
Are self-reported menstrual disorders associated with hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic disturbances as early as in adolescence?
Menstrual disorders at the age 16 are a good marker of hyperandrogenaemia, and an adverse lipid profile was associated with higher androgen levels.
Hyperandrogenism per se has been suggested to be a significant metabolic risk factor in women and a cause of physical and psychological morbidity in adolescent girls. A weak positive correlation has been described between hyperandrogenaemia and obesity in adolescent girls, but the clinical consequences are still poorly understood. Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are also key features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and women with PCOS are consequently at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome, and may have increased cardiovascular morbidity. Our findings confirm that the association between menstrual disorders, hyperandrogenism, obesity and metabolic risks is already evident in adolescence.
This population-based, cross-sectional study used postal questionnaires to targeting 15-16-year-old girls in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n= 4567).
There were 3669 girls who answered the postal questionnaire and out of 3373 girls who also underwent clinical examinations and blood tests, 2448 were included in the analyses. The questionnaire included one question about the regularity and length of the menstrual cycle: 'Is your menstrual cycle (the interval from the beginning of one menstrual period to the beginning of the next period) often (more than twice a year) longer than 35 days?' The girls who answered 'yes' to this question were considered to be suffering from menstrual disorders and were classified as 'symptomatic'. The girls who answered 'no' were defined as 'non-symptomatic'.
There were 709 (29%) girls who reported menstrual disorders (symptomatic girls) and 1739 who had regular periods (non-symptomatic girls). In the whole population and in both study groups, there were significant correlations between body mass index (BMI) (and waist-to-hip ratio), hyperandrogenaemia and metabolic parameters. Symptomatic girls exhibited significantly higher serum concentrations of testosterone (P= 0.010), lower levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (P =0.042) and higher free androgen indices [FAIs; geometric mean 3.38 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.27, 5.18) versus 3.08 (IQR: 2.15, 4.74), P= 0.002]. The two groups had comparable BMI and insulin sensitivity, and serum levels of glucose, insulin and lipids. There was a significant linear trend towards higher FAI values in the higher BMI quartiles in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic girls. In the whole population, there was a statistically significant linear decrease in high-density lipoprotein concentrations (P
Described are 76 children with a picture of progressive encephalopathy and ataxia as the principal or joint principal leading signs. The series was hospital-based in Gothenburg between 1973 and 1983, and not representative for epidemiologic analyses. The children were divided in groups by using a combined pathogenetic and clinical grouping system: lysosomal disorders (6 children), non-lysosomal lipid disorders (10), intermediary metabolic disorders (3), heredoataxias (22), phacomatoses including Louis-Bar (5), dysimmune encephalopathies (6), other defined disorders (19) and undefined or incompletely defined conditions (5). Different groups are discussed and, according to this material, a diagnostic pathway is drawn up.
Nearly one-third of obese (OB) people are reported to be metabolically healthy based on BMI criteria. It is unknown whether this holds true when more accurate adiposity measurements are applied such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We compared differences in the prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities among adiposity groups classified using BMI vs. DXA criteria. A total of 1,907 adult volunteers from Newfoundland and Labrador participated. BMI and body fat percentage (%BF; measured using DXA) were measured following a 12-h fasting period. Subjects were categorized as normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), or OB based on BMI and %BF criteria. Cardiometabolic abnormalities considered included elevated triglyceride, glucose, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy (0 or 1 cardiometabolic abnormality) or abnormal (= 2 cardiometabolic abnormalities). We found low agreement in the prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities between BMI and %BF classifications (? = 0.373, P