Skip header and navigation

Refine By

53 records – page 1 of 6.

131I content in the human thyroid estimated from direct measurements of the inhabitants of Russian areas contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30700
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2003
Author
A A Bratilova
I A Zvonova
M I Balonov
N G Shishkanov
V I Trushin
M. Hoshi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Mira st. 8, 197136, St Petersburg, Russia. bratilov@comset.net
Source
Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2003;105(1-4):623-6
Date
2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Computer simulation
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Iodine Radioisotopes - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Power Plants
Radiation Dosage
Radioactive fallout - analysis
Radiometry - methods
Russia
Thyroid Gland - metabolism
Ukraine
Abstract
The method of processing and the results of measurements of 131I content in the thyroids of Russian people performed in May-June 1986 are presented. The contribution of radiation from Cs radionuclides in the human body was taken into account in the processing of measurement data with an SRP-68-01 device. The greatest individual 131I content was found in the thyroids of inhabitants of the Bryansk region, up to 250-350 kBq, and in the Tula and Orel regions, up to 100 kBq. The average 131I thyroid activity in the middle of May 1986 reached 80 kBq for inhabitants of some settlements in the Bryansk region, 5-8 kBq in the Tula region and 5 kBq in the Orel region.
PubMed ID
14527038 View in PubMed
Less detail

The 2006 K/DOQI guidelines for peritoneal dialysis adequacy are not adequate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166065
Source
Blood Purif. 2007;25(1):103-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
James F Winchester
Nikolas Harbord
Patrick Audia
Alan Dubrow
Stephen Gruber
Donald Feinfeld
Richard Amerling
Author Affiliation
Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Beth Israel Medical Center, 350 East 17th Street, New York, NY 10003, USA. jwinches@bethisraelny.org
Source
Blood Purif. 2007;25(1):103-5
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Canada
Humans
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Peritoneal Dialysis - methods - standards
Practice Guidelines as Topic - standards
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Reproducibility of Results
United States
Urea - metabolism
Abstract
The 2006 National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI guidelines have lowered the peritoneal dialysis adequacy standard of Kt/V(urea) from 2.1 to 1.7 in anuric patients, largely based on the patient survival results of 2 clinical trials in Mexico and Hong Kong. It is our contention that the guidelines may be misleading since they have chosen to ignore the bias in these trials and have ignored the adverse outcomes in control groups in the trials on which the guidelines are based, as well as the body size of the subjects in these trials. Body size has changed in the US and Canada over the last few decades and there are similar changes worldwide. We suggest that the minimum targets for peritoneal dialysis be reinstituted at the previous standard Kt/V(urea) of 2.0.
PubMed ID
17170545 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics in Alaskan natives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214307
Source
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995 Sep 15;52(18):2015-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-1995
Author
K L McAndrews
J E Murphy
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterans Affairs Pharmacy Service, San Diego, CA, USA.
Source
Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1995 Sep 15;52(18):2015-8
Date
Sep-15-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alaska
Aminoglycosides
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacokinetics
Female
Half-Life
Humans
Inuits
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
United States
PubMed ID
8528870 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analysis of strontium metabolism in humans on the basis of the Techa river data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209356
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 1997 Feb;36(1):25-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1997
Author
E I Tolstykh
V P Kozheurov
O V Vyushkova
M O Degteva
Author Affiliation
Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Medgorodok, Chelyabinsk, Russia.
Source
Radiat Environ Biophys. 1997 Feb;36(1):25-9
Date
Feb-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Body Burden
Bone and Bones - metabolism - radiation effects
Child
Female
Fresh Water
Humans
Male
Menarche
Menopause
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Russia
Sex Characteristics
Strontium - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Water Pollution, Radioactive
Abstract
Age and sex features of strontium metabolism have been analyzed on studies of the population residing on the banks of the Techa river which was contaminated by fission products during the years 1949-1956. Measurements of 90Sr body burden have been performed since 1974 using a whole-body counter, and these have made it possible to estimate age-specific long-term retention and elimination rates for men and women. Regarding the retention that correlated with the respective maturation ages, distinct sex differences have been observed for adolescents, whereas only postmenopausal women showed a sharp increase of their elimination rates. There were no differences concerning the reproductive ages. Our experimental findings have a clear physiological interpretation and can be used to develop metabolic models for bone-seeking radionuclides.
PubMed ID
9128895 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Analysis of the daily human requirements for thiamine in the newly arrived population of Polar regions]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50444
Source
Vopr Pitan. 1978 Mar-Apr;(2):25-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
L E Panin
T G Filatova
Source
Vopr Pitan. 1978 Mar-Apr;(2):25-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Circadian Rhythm
Cold Climate
English Abstract
Humans
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Metallurgy
Nutrition
Nutritional Requirements
Thiamine - administration & dosage - metabolism
Thiamine Deficiency - prevention & control
Thiamine Pyrophosphate - blood
Time Factors
Transketolase - blood
USSR
Abstract
The erythrocytes transketolase activity and the TDP-effect were determined in persons residing in the regions beyond the polar circle and these demonstrated a moderate thiamine deficiency. The daily thiamine intake with food in the examined did not exceed 1.5 mg, the thiamine-diphosphate of the epoenzyme amounting to 90 per cent. Following introduction of various pharmacological preparations of vitamin B1 for a space of 2 weeks a somewhat greater transketolase activity and a diminution of the TDP-effect were observed. Administration of cocarboxylase and vitamin B1 with Mg and gelatin more favourable changes were obtained. Some macro- and micro-elements were found to exercise a positive effect on the thiamine assimilation by the tissues. The results obtained indicate that the daily thiamine requirement (allowance) of man in the North does not surpass 1.5-2.0 mg. To control hypovitaminoses in the North it is more effective to use natural vitamin-carriers rather than pharmacological preparations of vitamin B1.
PubMed ID
654205 View in PubMed
Less detail

Anxiolytics and sedatives and risk of fractures: effects of half-life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93786
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2008 Jan;82(1):34-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Vestergaard Peter
Rejnmark Lars
Mosekilde Leif
Author Affiliation
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. p-vest@post4.tele.dk
Source
Calcif Tissue Int. 2008 Jan;82(1):34-43
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Anxiety Agents - administration & dosage - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fractures, Bone - epidemiology
Half-Life
Humans
Hypnotics and Sedatives - administration & dosage - adverse effects - metabolism - pharmacokinetics
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
Middle Aged
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To study the risk of fractures associated with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, we conducted a case-control study. Cases were all subjects with any fracture during the year 2000 (n = 124,655). For each case, three controls (n = 373,962) matched on age and gender were randomly drawn from the background population. The exposure was use of any anxiolytic, sedative, or hypnotics. Adjustments were made for a number of potential confounders. Most anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics were associated with a limited increase in the risk of fractures. There was a dose-response relationship, and drugs with a half-life longer than 24 h were associated with a trend toward a higher relative risk of fractures than drugs with a shorter half-life. Both current use (last use 24 h tended to be associated with a higher risk of fractures than drugs with a shorter half-life. This points to a dose-dependent risk of, for example, falls leading to fractures. However, the increased risk of fractures with past use may suggest an effect of the condition for which the drug was prescribed rather than the drug per se (confounding by indication).
PubMed ID
18175030 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biliary excretion of ximelagatran and its metabolites and the influence of erythromycin following intraintestinal administration to healthy volunteers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141878
Source
J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 May;51(5):770-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Elin M Matsson
Ulf G Eriksson
Lars Knutson
Kurt-Jürgen Hoffmann
Ulrika Logren
Patrik Fridblom
Niclas Petri
Hans Lennernäs
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 May;51(5):770-83
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Antithrombins - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics
Area Under Curve
Azetidines - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics
Benzylamines - administration & dosage - pharmacokinetics
Bile - metabolism
Biotransformation
Cross-Over Studies
Duodenum - metabolism
Erythromycin - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Female
Half-Life
Humans
Intubation, Gastrointestinal
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Models, Biological
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The biliary excretion of the oral thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated by using duodenal aspiration in healthy volunteers following intraintestinal dosing. In the first investigation, radiolabeled [(14)C]ximelagatran was administered, enabling quantification of the biliary excretion and identification of metabolites in the bile. In the second study, the effect of erythromycin on the biliary clearance of ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated to clarify the reported ximelagatran-erythromycin interaction. Approximately 4% of the intraintestinal dose was excreted into bile with ximelagatran and its active form, melagatran, being the most abundant compounds. Four novel ximelagatran metabolites were identified in bile (
PubMed ID
20663994 View in PubMed
Less detail

Calculation of glomerular filtration rate expressed in mL/min from plasma cystatin C values in mg/L.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30442
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64(1):25-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
A. Larsson
J. Malm
A. Grubb
L O Hansson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. anders.larsson@clm.uas.lul.se
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64(1):25-30
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Creatinine - blood - metabolism
Cystatins - blood - metabolism
Female
Glomerular Filtration Rate - physiology
Humans
Iohexol - pharmacokinetics
Kidney - metabolism - physiology
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate - physiology
Middle Aged
Abstract
The Cockcroft Gault formula is often used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine results. In Sweden this calculation is not usually done in the laboratory, but locally in the wards. These manual calculations could cause erroneous results. In several studies plasma cystatin C has been shown to be superior to plasma creatinine for estimation of GFR. One limitation of using cystatin C as a GFR marker is that there is no conversion formula transforming cystatin C expressed as mg/L to GFR expressed as mL/min. In this study plasma creatinine and cystatin C were compared with iohexol clearance. A stronger correlation (p
PubMed ID
15025426 View in PubMed
Less detail

Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature74907
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2004 May;22(3):204-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2004
Author
Øyvind Thomassen
Guttorm Brattebø
Morten Rostrup
Author Affiliation
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Hammerfest Hospital, Hammerfest, Norway. oyt@hammerfest-sykehus.no
Source
Am J Emerg Med. 2004 May;22(3):204-6
Date
May-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Camping
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - blood - metabolism
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - diagnosis - etiology - metabolism - physiopathology
Carboxyhemoglobin - metabolism
Cookery - methods
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Half-Life
Heart rate
Heating - adverse effects - methods
Humans
Kerosene
Male
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Norway
Oximetry
Severity of Illness Index
Time Factors
Ventilation - methods
Abstract
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P
Notes
Comment In: Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;23(2):204; 207-815765348
Comment In: Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;23(2):205-815765349
PubMed ID
15138958 View in PubMed
Less detail

53 records – page 1 of 6.