The method of processing and the results of measurements of 131I content in the thyroids of Russian people performed in May-June 1986 are presented. The contribution of radiation from Cs radionuclides in the human body was taken into account in the processing of measurement data with an SRP-68-01 device. The greatest individual 131I content was found in the thyroids of inhabitants of the Bryansk region, up to 250-350 kBq, and in the Tula and Orel regions, up to 100 kBq. The average 131I thyroid activity in the middle of May 1986 reached 80 kBq for inhabitants of some settlements in the Bryansk region, 5-8 kBq in the Tula region and 5 kBq in the Orel region.
The 2006 National Kidney Foundation K/DOQI guidelines have lowered the peritoneal dialysis adequacy standard of Kt/V(urea) from 2.1 to 1.7 in anuric patients, largely based on the patient survival results of 2 clinical trials in Mexico and Hong Kong. It is our contention that the guidelines may be misleading since they have chosen to ignore the bias in these trials and have ignored the adverse outcomes in control groups in the trials on which the guidelines are based, as well as the body size of the subjects in these trials. Body size has changed in the US and Canada over the last few decades and there are similar changes worldwide. We suggest that the minimum targets for peritoneal dialysis be reinstituted at the previous standard Kt/V(urea) of 2.0.
Age and sex features of strontium metabolism have been analyzed on studies of the population residing on the banks of the Techa river which was contaminated by fission products during the years 1949-1956. Measurements of 90Sr body burden have been performed since 1974 using a whole-body counter, and these have made it possible to estimate age-specific long-term retention and elimination rates for men and women. Regarding the retention that correlated with the respective maturation ages, distinct sex differences have been observed for adolescents, whereas only postmenopausal women showed a sharp increase of their elimination rates. There were no differences concerning the reproductive ages. Our experimental findings have a clear physiological interpretation and can be used to develop metabolic models for bone-seeking radionuclides.
The erythrocytes transketolase activity and the TDP-effect were determined in persons residing in the regions beyond the polar circle and these demonstrated a moderate thiamine deficiency. The daily thiamine intake with food in the examined did not exceed 1.5 mg, the thiamine-diphosphate of the epoenzyme amounting to 90 per cent. Following introduction of various pharmacological preparations of vitamin B1 for a space of 2 weeks a somewhat greater transketolase activity and a diminution of the TDP-effect were observed. Administration of cocarboxylase and vitamin B1 with Mg and gelatin more favourable changes were obtained. Some macro- and micro-elements were found to exercise a positive effect on the thiamine assimilation by the tissues. The results obtained indicate that the daily thiamine requirement (allowance) of man in the North does not surpass 1.5-2.0 mg. To control hypovitaminoses in the North it is more effective to use natural vitamin-carriers rather than pharmacological preparations of vitamin B1.
To study the risk of fractures associated with anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics, we conducted a case-control study. Cases were all subjects with any fracture during the year 2000 (n = 124,655). For each case, three controls (n = 373,962) matched on age and gender were randomly drawn from the background population. The exposure was use of any anxiolytic, sedative, or hypnotics. Adjustments were made for a number of potential confounders. Most anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics were associated with a limited increase in the risk of fractures. There was a dose-response relationship, and drugs with a half-life longer than 24 h were associated with a trend toward a higher relative risk of fractures than drugs with a shorter half-life. Both current use (last use 24 h tended to be associated with a higher risk of fractures than drugs with a shorter half-life. This points to a dose-dependent risk of, for example, falls leading to fractures. However, the increased risk of fractures with past use may suggest an effect of the condition for which the drug was prescribed rather than the drug per se (confounding by indication).
The biliary excretion of the oral thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated by using duodenal aspiration in healthy volunteers following intraintestinal dosing. In the first investigation, radiolabeled [(14)C]ximelagatran was administered, enabling quantification of the biliary excretion and identification of metabolites in the bile. In the second study, the effect of erythromycin on the biliary clearance of ximelagatran and its metabolites was investigated to clarify the reported ximelagatran-erythromycin interaction. Approximately 4% of the intraintestinal dose was excreted into bile with ximelagatran and its active form, melagatran, being the most abundant compounds. Four novel ximelagatran metabolites were identified in bile (
The Cockcroft Gault formula is often used to calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasma creatinine results. In Sweden this calculation is not usually done in the laboratory, but locally in the wards. These manual calculations could cause erroneous results. In several studies plasma cystatin C has been shown to be superior to plasma creatinine for estimation of GFR. One limitation of using cystatin C as a GFR marker is that there is no conversion formula transforming cystatin C expressed as mg/L to GFR expressed as mL/min. In this study plasma creatinine and cystatin C were compared with iohexol clearance. A stronger correlation (p
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P
Comment In: Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;23(2):204; 207-815765348
Comment In: Am J Emerg Med. 2005 Mar;23(2):205-815765349