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The 1891-1920 birth cohort of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers: mortality 1976-88.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219707
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1073-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
J C McDonald
F D Liddell
A. Dufresne
A D McDonald
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1073-81
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asbestos, Serpentine
Asbestosis - mortality
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Exposure
Quebec - epidemiology
Smoking - mortality
Time Factors
Abstract
A cohort of some 11,000 men born 1891-1920 and employed for at least one month in the chrysotile mines and mills of Quebec, was established in 1966 and has been followed ever since. Of the 5351 men surviving into 1976, only 16 could not be traced; 2508 were still alive in 1989, and 2827 had died; by the end of 1992 a further 698 were known to have died, giving an overall mortality of almost 80%. This paper presents the results of analysis of mortality for the period 1976 to 1988 inclusive, obtained by the subject-years method, with Quebec mortality for reference. In many respects the standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) 20 years or more after first employment were similar to those for the period 1951-75--namely, all causes 1.07 (1951-75, 1.09); heart disease 1.02 (1.04); cerebrovascular disease 1.06 (1.07); external causes 1.17 (1.17). The SMR for lung cancer, however, rose from 1.25 to 1.39 and deaths from mesothelioma increased from eight (10 before review) to 25; deaths from respiratory tuberculosis fell from 57 to five. Among men whose exposure by age 55 was at least 300 million particles per cubic foot x years (mpcf.y), the SMR (all causes) was elevated in the two main mining regions, Asbestos and Thetford Mines, and for the small factory in Asbestos; so were the SMRs for lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and respiratory disease other than pneumoconiosis. Except for lung cancer, however, there was little convincing evidence of gradients over four classes of exposure, divided at 30, 100, and 300 mpcf.y. Over seven narrower categories of exposure up to 300 mpcf.y the SMR for lung cancer fluctuated around 1.27 with no indication of trend, but increased steeply above that level. Mortality form pneumoconiosis was strongly related to exposure, and the trend for mesothelioma was not dissimilar. Mortality generally was related systematically to cigarette smoking habit, recorded in life from 99% of survivors into 1976; smokers of 20 or more cigarettes a day had the highest SMRs not only for lung cancer but also for all causes, cancer of the stomach, pancreas, and larynx, and ischaemic heart disease. For lung cancer SMRs increased fivefold with smoking, but the increase with dust exposure was comparatively slight for non-smokers, lower again for ex-smokers, and negligible for smokers of at least 20 cigarettes a day; thus the asbestos-smoking interaction was less than multiplicative. Of the 33 deaths from mesothelioma in the cohort to date, 28 were in miners and millers and five were in employees of a small asbestos products factory where commercial amphiboles had also been used. Preliminary analysis also suggest that the risk of mesothelioma was higher in the mines and mills at Thetford Mines than in those at Asbestos. More detailed studies of these differences and of exposure-response relations for lung cancer are under way.
Notes
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1980 Feb;37(1):11-247370189
Cites: Br J Cancer. 1982 Jan;45(1):124-357059455
Cites: Biometrics. 1983 Mar;39(1):173-846871346
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1987 Jun;44(6):396-4013606968
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;330:91-116294225
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1992 Aug;49(8):566-751325180
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1971 Jun;22(6):677-865574010
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1972 Mar;24(3):189-975059627
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1991 Aug;48(8):543-71878311
PubMed ID
8280638 View in PubMed
Less detail

Apoptosis and expression of apoptosis regulating proteins bcl-2, mcl-1, bcl-X, and bax in malignant mesothelioma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20705
Source
Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Nov;5(11):3508-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
Y. Soini
V. Kinnula
R. Kaarteenaho-Wiik
E. Kurttila
K. Linnainmaa
P. Pääkkö
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
Source
Clin Cancer Res. 1999 Nov;5(11):3508-15
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - mortality - pathology
Adult
Aged
Apoptosis
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality - pathology
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasm Proteins - analysis
Pleural Neoplasms - mortality - pathology
Proto-Oncogene Proteins - analysis
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Survival Rate
Tumor Cells, Cultured
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
bcl-X Protein
Abstract
We investigated apoptosis and the expression of bcl-2, mcl-1, bcl-X, and bax in histological sections from 35 malignant mesotheliomas and 21 metastatic adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the expression of bcl-2, mcl-1, bcl-X, and bax were assessed by Western blotting in nonmalignant human mesothelial cells (Met5A) and seven malignant cell lines. The apoptotic index in mesotheliomas was 1.07+/-1.14%. Patients with mesotheliomas showing a high apoptotic index (> or =0.75%) had a worse prognosis (P = 0.008). bcl-2 positivity was observed in only seven cases, but bcl-X, mcl-1, and bax positivity was seen in all of them. In immunoblotting experiments, all mesothelioma cell lines were negative for bcl-2 but positive for bcl-X, mcl-1, and bax. The apoptotic index in bcl-2-negative mesotheliomas was 1.25+/-1.24% and in bcl-2-positive ones, 0.47+/-0.42% (P = 0.014). The apoptotic index did not significantly associate with bcl-X, mcl-1, or bax expression (P = 0.19, P = 0.25, and P = 0.46, respectively). No significant difference was observed in apoptosis or expression of bcl-2, bcl-X, or bax between malignant mesotheliomas and metastatic adenocarcinomas. The former, however, showed more often weak mcl-1 immunoreactivity (P = 0.01). The results show that the extent of apoptosis may influence patient prognosis. bcl-2 is inversely associated with the apoptotic index but is relatively infrequently expressed in malignant mesotheliomas. Widespread expression of bcl-X, mcl-1, and bax suggests that these proteins may also take part in apoptosis regulation in mesotheliomas.
PubMed ID
10589765 View in PubMed
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Asbestos-associated cancers in the Ontario refinery and petrochemical sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210773
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Nov;30(5):610-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1996
Author
M M Finkelstein
Author Affiliation
Ontario Ministry of Labour, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Nov;30(5):610-5
Date
Nov-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Asbestos - adverse effects
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupations
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Petroleum
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
Asbestos has been widely used in the refinery and petrochemical sector. Mesothelioma has occurred among maintenance employees, and it was hypothesized that mesothelioma is a marker for exposures which might increase lung cancer risk. A death certificate-based case-control study of mesothelioma and lung cancer from 1980 to 1992 was conducted in an Ontario county with a substantial presence of these industries. Each of the 17 men who died of mesothelioma and 424 with lung cancer were matched with controls who died of other causes. The Job and Industry fields on the death certificates were abstracted. Employment as a maintenance worker in the refinery and petrochemical sector was associated with an increased risk of mesothelioma (odds ratio: 24.5; 90% confidence interval 3.1-102). The risk of lung cancer among petrochemical workers, in comparison with all other workers in the county, was 0.88. In an internal comparison of maintenance employees with other blue-collar workers in the refinery and petrochemical sector, the odds ratio for lung cancer was 1.73 (90% confidence interval 0.83-3.6). This finding is consistent with no difference in risk between maintenance and other employees, but it is also compatible with study power being too low to achieve statistical significance. The hypothesis of increased lung cancer risk could be examined more fully with nested case-control studies in existing cohorts. Meanwhile, it would be prudent to reinforce adherence to asbestos control measures in the refinery and petrochemical sector.
PubMed ID
8909610 View in PubMed
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Death certificates in epidemiological studies, including occupational hazards: inaccuracies in occupational categories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224901
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1992;22(4):493-504
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992
Author
I J Selikoff
Author Affiliation
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, New York 10029-6574.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1992;22(4):493-504
Date
1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Asbestosis - mortality
Canada - epidemiology
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Death Certificates
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - mortality
Occupational Diseases - classification - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Occupations - classification - statistics & numerical data
Peritoneal Neoplasms - mortality
Pleural Neoplasms - mortality
Risk factors
Survival Analysis
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
We compared death certificates for asbestos-associated diseases (mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis) in two asbestos workers' cohorts. One (insulation workers) had current or recent employment and a strong, continuing union support system which gave them much information about the effects of asbestos exposure. The second cohort, asbestos factory workers, had no such advantage. The factory had closed almost 30 years before, and its workers had dispersed into many areas of the state and nation. Accuracy of medical diagnosis was comparable in the two groups, but occupational listings were not. Three-quarters of the insulators' death certificates told of asbestos work, while virtually none of the factory workers' certificates provided such information, even for deaths of mesothelioma and asbestosis. The data indicate that disease categories, based on medical and pathological diagnoses, at least for asbestos-associated disease, tend to be accurate. Attempts to identify groups at risk by sorting occupational categories can give variable results, good for those with current exposures, much less satisfactory for those with long-past occupational exposures.
PubMed ID
1442784 View in PubMed
Less detail

Decline in death rates among asbestos insulation workers 1967-1986 associated with diminution of work exposure to asbestos.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature103550
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;609:300-17; discussion 317-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990

Influence of age at death on accuracy of death certificate disease diagnosis: findings in 475 consecutive deaths of mesothelioma among asbestos insulation workers and asbestos factory workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature224900
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1992;22(4):505-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
1992

[Insulation workers in the province of Qu├ębec: causes of mortality].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244597
Source
Union Med Can. 1981 Apr;110(4):362-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1981

Long-term mortality experience of chrysotile miners and millers in Thetford Mines, Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247779
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;330:11-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
1979
Author
W J Nicholson
I J Selikoff
H. Seidman
R. Lilis
P. Formby
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979;330:11-21
Date
1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Asbestos - adverse effects
Asbestosis - mortality
Epidemiologic Methods
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Mesothelioma - mortality
Middle Aged
Mining
Neoplasms - mortality
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Quebec
Risk
Abstract
Among a cohort of 544 men with at least 20 years of employment in chrysotile mining and milling at Thetford Mines, Canada, 16% of the deaths were from lung cancer and 15% from asbestosis. The excess over expected deaths from these causes account for 43 of 178 deaths in the group. The risk of death of asbestosis, at equal times fron onset of exposure, is very similar in miners and millers, factory workmen and insulators. The ratio of observed to expected deaths from lung cancer is similar in the miners and millers and factory workers, but higher in insulators. The risk of death of mesothelioma in miners and millers is decidedly less than the other two groups. The exact causes of the reduced risk in this category are not yet completely clarified.
PubMed ID
294161 View in PubMed
Less detail

Malignant mesothelioma among employees of a Connecticut factory that manufactured friction materials using chrysotile asbestos.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143123
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Aug;54(6):692-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Murray M Finkelstein
Christopher Meisenkothen
Author Affiliation
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. murray.finkelstein@utoronto.ca
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Aug;54(6):692-6
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Asbestos, Serpentine - analysis
Connecticut - epidemiology
Fatal Outcome
Female
Humans
Male
Manufactured Materials
Mesothelioma - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
There is ongoing argument about the potency of chrysotile asbestos to cause malignant mesothelioma. Risk assessment for chrysotile is influenced by the alleged absence of mesotheliomas among workers at the Raybestos Manhattan friction products plant in Connecticut, a plant that essentially used only chrysotile asbestos. Regrettably, the statement that there is an absence of mesothelioma deaths in the Connecticut plant is false. In this paper, we report on our review of the work histories and pathological reports of five individuals from the Connecticut plant who were diagnosed with mesothelioma. We discuss the Connecticut plant in relation to the most recent epidemiological information for chrysotile. Calculation suggests that mesothelioma rates at this plant were similar to those observed among Quebec miners and the South Carolina textile plant. We urge everyone concerned with the risk assessment of chrysotile asbestos to make use of all available data.
Notes
Comment In: Ann Occup Hyg. 2011 Aug;55(7):817-9; author reply 820-221831850
PubMed ID
20522518 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.