The role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in Crohn's disease is unclear. The outcome of the first course of 5-ASA monotherapy with emphasis on 5-ASA dependency was retrospectively assessed in consecutive cohort of 537 Crohn's disease patients diagnosed 1953-2007.
Following outcome definitions were used: Immediate outcome (30 days after 5-ASA start) defined as complete/partial response (total regression/improvement of symptoms) and no response (no regression of symptoms with a need of corticosteroids, immunomodulator or surgery). Long-term outcome defined as prolonged response (still in complete/partial response 1 year after induction of response); 5-ASA dependency (relapse on stable/reduced dose of 5-ASA requiring dose escalation to regain response or relapse =1 year after 5-ASA cessation regaining response after 5-ASA re-introduction).
One hundred sixty-five (31%) patients had monotherapy with 5-ASA. In 50% 5-ASA monotherapy was initiated =1 year after diagnosis (range 0-49 years). Complete/partial response was obtained in 75% and no response in 25% of patients. Thirty-six percent had prolonged response, 23% developed 5-ASA dependency and 38% were non-responders in long-term outcome. Female gender had higher probability to develop prolonged response or 5-ASA dependency (OR 2.89, 95%CI: 1.08-7.75, p=0.04). The median duration (range) of 5-ASA monotherapy was 34 months (1-304) in prolonged responders, 63 (6-336) in 5-ASA dependent and 2 (0-10) in non-responders.
A selected phenotype of Crohn's disease patients may profit from 5-ASA. Fifty-nine percent of patients obtained long-term benefit with 23% becoming 5-ASA dependent. Prospective studies are warranted to assess the role of 5-ASA in Crohn's disease.
Treatment possibilities have changed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed changes in medical treatment and surgery over time and impact of medications on risk of surgery in a population-based cohort.
48 967 individuals were diagnosed with IBD (Crohn's disease (CD), 13 185; ulcerative colitis (UC), 35 782) during 1979-2011. Cumulative probability of receiving 5-aminosalicylic acids (5-ASA), topical, oral corticosteroids, thiopurines, and tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) blockers, and of first minor or major surgery according to period of diagnosis, was estimated. Medication use and risk of surgery was examined by Cox regression.
5-year cumulative probability of first major surgery decreased from 44.7% in cohort (1979-1986) to 19.6% in cohort (2003-2011) (p?1 year.
Parallel to an increasing use of thiopurines and TNF-a blockers in IBD over time, a persistent significant decrease in surgery rates was observed along with a significant decrease in use of 5-ASA and corticosteroids. However, no convincing surgery-sparing effect of newer medications was found.
The aim of the study was to describe the medical treatment, change in phenotype, need for surgery and IBD-associated mortality during the first 5 years after diagnosis.
Patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease including all age groups in the Uppsala healthcare region in the middle of Sweden 2005-2009 were included in the study. Medical notes were scrutinised and patients contacted. Out of 269 patients, 260 (96.3%) could be followed for 5 full years or until death.
The following drugs were used: 5-ASA 66.7%, systemic steroids 76.4%, antimetabolites 56.7% and anti-TNF 20.3%. Described with the Montreal classification, the proportion with inflammatory behaviour decreased from 78.1% to 74.0% from diagnosis to end of the observation, patients with stricturing behaviour increased from 13.0% to 15.4% and patients with penetrating behaviour increased from 8.9% to 10.6%. After the first year, 12.4% had been treated with intestinal resection or colectomy, a figure that increased to 14.8 after 5 years. Two patients suffered an IBD-related death.
Compared to similar patient cohorts, the present study demonstrates that although the course of Crohn's disease seems difficult to change during the first year after diagnosis, the following years up to 5 years shows a more benign course than has usually been described earlier.
Crohn's disease is a chronic transmural inflammation that can involve any part of the digestive system, from the oral cavity to the anal canal, being combined with many abenteric manifestations. It can appear at any age. The first description of this disease in a teenager was made in 1834 by B.B. Crohn, and 11 years later a series of observations describing 48 children with this disease was published. The concept of the Crohn's disease as a non-children illness underwent a change with the widening of diagnostic possibilities, wide use of the endoscopic method of diagnostics in pediatric practice, and histological studies of biopsy materials. A steady growth of the frequency of Crohn's disease detections has been recorded since the middle of the 1980s. Morbidity in Great Britain and Sweden doubled reaching 3.1 for 100,000 infants, and in 1993 its spread made up 16.6 for 100,000.
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a lifelong disease with increasing incidence. UC requires frequent outpatient clinic visits and continuous medical treatment. Web-based self-management in other chronic diseases influences disease course, and increases self-adherence, compliance and quality of life (QoL). Lack of easy access to inflammatory bowel disease clinics and patient education, their understanding of the importance of early treatment at relapse, poor compliance and self-adherence can be partly solved by a newly developed Web-based concept. AIMS: To describe the development and validation of the Web-based 'Constant-Care' concept. METHODS: A Web-based treatment program (www.constant-care.dk) and a Patient Educational Centre for UC patients were developed. The feasibility and acceptance of the concept was validated before (group A) and 6 months after (group B) the start of a randomized controlled trial. Patients' level of disease-specific knowledge, QoL, anxiety and depression were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten (group A) and 11 (group B) patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of mild-to-moderate UC participated in the study. All patients reported an ability to initiate self-treatment after the educational training (ET). A significant increase in knowledge from 36 to 69% (group A) and 28 to 75% (group B) was obtained. A majority of the patients were satisfied with the ET. Patients' QoL, anxiety, depression and general well-being showed no difference after the ET. CONCLUSION: Patient education and training through a Web-based program (www.constant-care.dk) seems to be a feasible concept for increasing patients' ability to self-initiate treatment and increase the level of disease-specific knowledge. Relevant adjustment of the concept was implemented. The final outcome of the 'Constant-Care' concept is pending.
The natural history of ulcerative colitis requires continuous monitoring of medical treatment via frequent outpatient visits. The European health authorities' focus on e-health is increasing. Lack of easy access to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) clinics, patients' education and understanding of the importance of early treatment at relapse is leading to poor compliance. To overcome these limitations a randomised control trial 'Constant-care' was undertaken in Denmark and Ireland.
333 patients with mild/moderate ulcerative colitis and 5-aminosalicylate acid treatment were randomised to either a web-group receiving disease specific education and self-treatment via http://www.constant-care.dk or a control group continuing the usual care for 12 months. A historical control group was included to test the comparability with the control group. We investigated: feasibility of the approach, its influence on patients' compliance, knowledge, quality of life (QoL), disease outcomes, safety and health care costs.
88% of the web patients preferred using the new approach. Adherence to 4 weeks of acute treatment was increased by 31% in Denmark and 44% in Ireland compared to the control groups. In Denmark IBD knowledge and QoL were significantly improved in web patients. Median relapse duration was 18 days (95% CI 10 to 21) in the web versus 77 days (95% CI 46 to 108) in the control group. The number of acute and routine visits to the outpatient clinic was lower in the web than in the control group, resulting in a saving of 189 euro/patient/year. No difference in the relapse frequency, hospitalisation, surgery or adverse events was observed. The historical control group was comparable with the control group.
The new web-guided approach on http://www.constant-care.dk is feasible, safe and cost effective. It empowers patients with ulcerative colitis without increasing their morbidity and depression. It has yet to be shown whether this strategy can change the natural disease course of ulcerative colitis in the long term.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic gastrointestinal disorders of unknown aetiology of increasing incidence and changing disease activity or severity. Approximately 60-80% of IBD patients suffer from IBS. Monitoring and treatment goals of IBD are to optimise the disease course by prolonging remission periods and preventing or shortening periods of active disease. Constant-care web-monitoring and treatment approaches with active patient involvement have been proven effective in UC, increasing patients' adherence and improving the disease outcomes.
To assess the feasibility and efficacy of the novel constant-care eHealth applications in: i) CD patients treated with infliximab (IFX), ii) UC patients with active disease on mesalazine, iii) IBS patients and iv) IBD patients with IBS on a low FODMAP diet (LFD).
New constant-care web applications www.cd.constant-care.dk, www.meza.constant-care.dk and www.ibs.constant-care.dk in IBD patients were developed and assessed in this thesis. An integrated inflammatory burden measure of disease activity, consisting of a subjective (clinical indices) and of an objective (faecal calprotectin) part and a treatment guide to drug doses and intervals, was incorporated into the web applications and used by patients.
Web-guided IFX treatment in CD demonstrated patients' inter- and intra-individual variability in infusion intervals and provided patients with individualised treatment according to their needs. Web-guided treatment with multimatrix mesalazine was efficacious in a majority of UC patients with mild-to-moderate disease activity. Web-guided IBS-monitoring in IBD and in IBS patients on LFD was shown to be a feasible method that actively involved patients in their disease management and had a positive short-term impact on the disease. Moreover, the new constant-care concepts were demonstrated to be safe and to have a positive impact on quality of life and adherence to treatment and helped to reduce the costs.
The novel constant-care web applications have proven feasible in improving the disease outcomes in CD patients on IFX, in UC patients on mesalazine, and in monitoring IBS. These applications are expected to be implemented in the clinical practice of gastroenterology in Denmark in the coming years. Future studies will help to assess whether the natural disease course can be improved in the long-term.
Variation in care is a ubiquitous feature of medical practice and may lead to significant differences in health care costs, quality, and outcomes. We undertook this study to determine the extent of intercenter variation in the initial management of children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease.
We analyzed the utilization of 5 classes of medication (immunomodulators, prednisone, antibiotics, 5-aminosalicylates, and infliximab) among 311 children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease followed at 10 North American pediatric gastroenterology centers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare the utilization rate of each class of medication at each of the 10 centers, adjusting for potential confounders including patient age, sex, race, disease severity, and anatomic location of disease.
Median utilization of each class of medication was: immunomodulators, 56% (range 29%-97%); prednisone, 78% (range 32%-88%); antibiotics, 29% (range 11%-68%); 5-aminosalicylates, 63.5% (range 18%-92%); and infliximab, 7.5% (range 3%-21%). Each of these treatments showed statistically significant intercenter variation in utilization (P
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and possibly also increased risk for cancers outside the intestinal tract. We followed-up a population-based cohort of 1160 patients with UC diagnosed in Copenhagen County between 1962 and 1987 for up to 36 years to analyze the overall and site-specific cancer risk. METHODS: Observed vs. expected cancers were presented as standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) with 95% exact confidence intervals (CI) calculated by using individual person-years at risk and sex- and age-specific incidence rates for the Danish background population in 1995. RESULTS: The cohort was followed-up for a median of 19 years, or 22,290 person-years. A total of 124 malignancies were observed compared with 139.85 expected (SMR, .89; 95% CI, .74-1.07). The observed number of CRCs was almost exactly equal to expected: 13 cases vs. 12.42 (SMR, 1.05; 95% CI, .56-1.79). The cumulative probability of CRC was .4% by 10 years, 1.1% by 20 years, and 2.1% by 30 years of disease. Among men, melanoma was increased (SMR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.38-7.10); otherwise, no increased risk for cancer could be detected. No hepatobiliary cancers and no increased risk for lymphoma or leukemia were found. CONCLUSIONS: Neither the overall cancer risk, nor the CRC risk, were increased in this population-based cohort after a median of 19 years of follow-up evaluation. An active surgical approach in medical treatment failures and long-term use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) as relapse prevention may explain this remarkable result.
The medical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) has seen a change towards a more active attitude during recent years, including both the use of more traditional drugs as well as new biological substances. In this epidemiological study we have evaluated the results of modern treatment of UC in a population-based cohort of patients including all age groups, with regard to relapse rate, colectomy and IBD-associated mortality.
Patients diagnosed with UC in the Uppsala health care region in the middle of Sweden during 2005-2009 were included in the study. Out of 524 patients, 491 (93%) could be followed for five full years or until death.
Nineteen patients (3.9%) had died and two of these deaths could be attributed to UC (one postoperative death and one colonic carcinoma). The following drugs were used by the patients during the study period: 5-ASA (91%), systemic steroids (66%), immunomodulators (IMM), mainly thiopurines (26%) and anti-TNF (11%). During the observation period, 74% experienced at least one relapse and 5.3% were subjected to colectomy. Among patients?