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267 records – page 1 of 27.

Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70531
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Martin M Larsen
Christina Lockyer
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Greenland
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Organotin Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Phocoena - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
The concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorBT=TBT+DBT+MBT) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the Danish North Sea and the Inner Danish waters. In addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in West Greenland were analysed. High levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg BT/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg Hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the Danish harbour porpoises and both substances tend to accumulate with age. The levels in the harbour porpoise from West Greenland were 2.0-18 mg BT/kg ww and 6.3-6.9 mg Hg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin and mercury were both found to be higher in stranded than in by-caught harbour porpoises but only the butyltin concentration was significantly higher in stranded porpoises in the age group 1-5 years. These substances are suspected of inducing adverse effects on immune and endocrine systems in mammals and they may thereby pose a threat to the animals. This study suggests that organotin compounds are also important, when assessing the risks of contaminants on the health and viability of harbour porpoises in Danish waters.
PubMed ID
16227073 View in PubMed
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Activation of the immune system and systemic immune-complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature72544
Source
J Dent Res. 1998 Jun;77(6):1415-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1998
Author
P. Hultman
U. Lindh
P. Hörsted-Bindslev
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Environment, Linköping University, Sweden.
Source
J Dent Res. 1998 Jun;77(6):1415-25
Date
Jun-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Antibody Formation - drug effects
Antigen-Antibody Complex - analysis - blood
Autoimmune Diseases - chemically induced
Autoimmunity
Body Burden
Comparative Study
Copper - analysis
Dental Amalgam - toxicity
Dinitrobenzenes
Female
Immune Complex Diseases - chemically induced
Immunoglobulin E - blood
Laminin
Lymphocyte Activation - drug effects
Mercury - analysis - blood - pharmacokinetics
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred Lew
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Silver - analysis
Spectrum Analysis, Mass
Statistics, nonparametric
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
Dental amalgam restorations are a significant source of mercury exposure in the human population, but their potential to cause systemic health effects is highly disputed. We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight). BN rats with amalgam restorations, compared with control rats given composite resinous restorations, developed a rapid activation of the immune system, with a maximum 12-fold increase of the plasma IgE concentration after 3 wks (p 0.05). After 12 wks, BN rats with amalgam restorations showed significantly increased (p spleen > cerebrum occipital lobe > cerebellum > liver > thymus, and the tissue silver concentration was significantly (p
PubMed ID
9649170 View in PubMed
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All-time releases of mercury to the atmosphere from human activities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129775
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Dec 15;45(24):10485-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2011
Author
David G Streets
Molly K Devane
Zifeng Lu
Tami C Bond
Elsie M Sunderland
Daniel J Jacob
Author Affiliation
Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States. dstreets@anl.gov
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Dec 15;45(24):10485-91
Date
Dec-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Atmosphere - chemistry
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Mining - statistics & numerical data
Power Plants - statistics & numerical data
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Pollution, Chemical - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is critical for explaining the presence of mercury in remote regions of the world, such as the Arctic and the Himalayas, as well as local concentrations. While we have good knowledge of present-day fluxes of mercury to the atmosphere, we have little knowledge of what emission levels were like in the past. Here we develop a trend of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from 1850 to 2008-for which relatively complete data are available-and supplement that trend with an estimate of anthropogenic emissions prior to 1850. Global mercury emissions peaked in 1890 at 2600 Mg yr(-1), fell to 700-800 Mg yr(-1) in the interwar years, then rose steadily after 1950 to present-day levels of 2000 Mg yr(-1). Our estimate for total mercury emissions from human activities over all time is 350 Gg, of which 39% was emitted before 1850 and 61% after 1850. Using an eight-compartment global box-model of mercury biogeochemical cycling, we show that these emission trends successfully reproduce present-day atmospheric enrichment in mercury.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22070723 View in PubMed
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American Society for Circumpolar Health. Comparison of mercury in selected subsistence foods from western Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4462
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Dec;62(4):448
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003

An Ecological and Human Biomonitoring Investigation of Mercury Contamination at the Aamjiwnaang First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289980
Source
Ecohealth. 2016 12; 13(4):784-795
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2016
Author
Diana Cryderman
Lisa Letourneau
Fiona Miller
Niladri Basu
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Source
Ecohealth. 2016 12; 13(4):784-795
Date
12-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollution
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
The Aamjiwnaang First Nations community is located in Canada's 'Chemical Valley' situated in southwest Ontario near Sarnia. Mercury pollution in the region has been known since the 1940s but little is known about levels in the environment and area residents. The current study, using ecological and human exposure assessment methods, was conducted at the community's request to help fill these gaps. First, Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory and the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory were queried to investigate mercury releases from area facilities. In 2010, 700 pounds of mercury were emitted into the air, 25 pounds were released into water bodies, and 93 thousand pounds were disposed of on-site via underground injections or into landfills, and together these show continued releases into the region. Second, mercury levels were measured in stream sediment and nearby soil from sites at Aamjiwnaang (n = 4) and off Reserve (n = 19) in Canada and the U.S. during three seasons that spanned 2010-2011. Total mercury in sediment across all sites and sampling seasons ranged from 5.0 to 398.7 µg/kg, and in soils ranged from 1.2 to 696.2 µg/kg. Sediment and soil mercury levels at Aamjiwnaang were higher than the reference community, and Aamjiwnaang's Talfourd Creek site had the highest mercury levels. Third, a biomonitoring study was performed with 43 mother-child pairs. Hair (mean ± SD of all participants: 0.18 ± 0.16 µg/g) and blood (1.6 ± 2.0 µg/L) mercury levels did not differ between participants studied on- and off-Reserve, likely because of limited seafood intake (
Notes
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PubMed ID
27645755 View in PubMed
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An evaluation of environmental and biological mercury levels in the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246138
Source
Ont Dent. 1980 Feb;57(2):7-9, 10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1980

An inventory of historical mercury emissions in maritime canada: implications for present and future contamination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197892
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 22;256(1):39-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-22-2000
Author
E M Sunderlan
G L Chmura
Author Affiliation
School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada. ems@sfu.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2000 Jun 22;256(1):39-57
Date
Jun-22-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Forecasting
Fossil Fuels
Humans
Industry
Mercury - analysis
Mining
Refuse Disposal
Abstract
Mercury is a longstanding concern in Maritime Canada due to high levels of contamination in a number of fish and bird species. The recycled component of past releases of anthropogenic mercury may be a significant source of ongoing pollution in many areas. Historical information on mercury releases can be used to quantify past and present anthropogenic contamination. We present an inventory of historical mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in Maritime Canada for the years 1800-1995. Long-term trends in mercury emissions and the significance of the cumulative burden of mercury released from local sources are discussed. Emissions are calculated using both historical monitoring data and the application of emission factors. The nature of current anthropogenic sources of mercury is quite different than it was several decades ago when many of the existing policies governing mercury pollution were created. Our inventory illustrates that many of the most significant sources in the past such as the chlor-alkali industry, paint containing mercury additives, and pharmaceuticals, have been largely phased out with fossil fuel combustion and waste disposal remaining as the most significant modern sources. Atmospheric emissions in Maritime Canada peaked in 1945 (> 1,750 kg year-1), and again between 1965 and 1970 (> 2,600 kg year-1). Cumulative releases of mercury from anthropogenic sources for the years 1800-1995 were between 115 and 259 t to the atmosphere alone, and 327-448 t when discharges to wastewater and effluents were included. Assuming that only 0.2% (Nriagu, 1994.) of these releases become part of the recycled fraction of current fluxes, we estimate that between 570 and 900 kg Hg year-1 is deposited in Maritime Canada from past anthropogenic sources. Modern sources within Maritime Canada contribute at least 405 kg year-1 to the total annual deposition of 1.71 t over the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, leaving approximately 735 kg year-1 from natural sources and long-range contamination. Further study is needed to verify these estimates and clarify the significance of natural and long-range sources of mercury in Maritime Canada.
PubMed ID
10898386 View in PubMed
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Anti-parasite treatment, but not mercury burdens, influence nesting propensity dependent on arrival time or body condition in a marine bird.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292284
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 01; 575:849-857
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-01-2017
Author
J F Provencher
M R Forbes
M L Mallory
S Wilson
H G Gilchrist
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address: jennifpro@gmail.com.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jan 01; 575:849-857
Date
Jan-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Bird Diseases - drug therapy - parasitology
Body Burden
Clutch Size
Ducks - parasitology
Female
Mercury - analysis
Nesting Behavior
Parasites
Reproduction
Abstract
Arctic wildlife can be exposed to high mercury (Hg) levels, and are also naturally exposed to gastrointestinal parasites that can reduce condition and negatively affect reproductive output and/or survival in similar ways. Importantly, both Hg and parasites are increasing in wildlife in some Arctic regions. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria mollissima) to explore how Hg in association with both natural levels and experimentally reduced parasitic infections, affect reproduction and survival. Female eiders were measured, banded, and blood sampled to determine blood Hg burdens, prior to breeding. Propensity to nest, clutch size, nest survival, nest attendance, and return rates were assessed in relation to both Hg burden and parasite treatment. Neither reproduction nor return rates of females varied with Hg concentrations, but females arriving late to the colony, or in low body condition, showed increased nesting propensity when given the anti-parasite treatment as compared to placebo treatment. Our results suggest that parasites can play a critical role in decisions to invest in avian breeding annually, particularly among individuals with a late onset to breeding, and in poor condition.
PubMed ID
27692942 View in PubMed
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[Application of a standardized-human biomonitoring methodology to assess prenatal exposure to mercury].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263391
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Sep-Oct;(5):10-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
A I Egorov
I N Ilchenko
S M Lyapunov
E V Marochkina
O I Okina
B V Ermolaev
T V Karamysheva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2014 Sep-Oct;(5):10-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Food Habits
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Mercury - analysis - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Questionnaires
Russia
Seafood
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - blood - pharmacokinetics - urine
World Health Organization
Abstract
World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), has developed a standardized methodology for human biomonitoring (HBM) surveys in maternities in order to assess prenatal exposure to mercury. To test this standard methodology and adapt it to Russian settings, a cross-sectional HBM survey involving 120 parturient women was conducted in six maternities of the Moscow Region. Levels of total mercury in maternal hair (geometric mean: 0.21 µg/g, 95th percentile: 0.54 µg/g), cord blood (0.89 µg/L and 2.38 µg/L, respectively) and maternal urine (0.27 µg/L and 0.94 µg/L) in this population were similar to those in other European countries with relatively low fish consumption. Consumption of all types of fish at least once per week during the third trimester of pregnancy compared to fish consumption less than once per month was associated with the increase of geometric mean level of total mercury: in hair by 31% (95% confidence interval: 4%, 66%) higher, in cord blood--by 38% (9%, 74%) and in maternal urine--by 36% (2%, 81%). No biomarker values exceeded levels recommended by WHO or national agencies in the USA and Germany. However; at the population level, adverse effects of prenatal exposures to mercury can still be substantial.
PubMed ID
25831921 View in PubMed
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Application of hair-mercury analysis to determine the impact of a seafood advisory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70863
Source
Environ Res. 2005 Feb;97(2):200-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Pál Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Poul J Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Faroese Hospital System, Sigmundargøta 5, P.O. Box 14, FO-110 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands.
Source
Environ Res. 2005 Feb;97(2):200-7
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Denmark - epidemiology
Dolphins
Female
Food Contamination
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Postal Service
Public Health
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk Management
Abstract
Following an official recommendation in the Faroe Islands that women should abstain from eating mercury-contaminated pilot whale meat, a survey was carried out to obtain information on dietary habits and hair samples for mercury analysis. A letter was sent to all 1180 women aged 26-30 years who resided within the Faroes, and the women were contacted again 1 year later. A total of 415 women responded to the first letter; the second letter resulted in 145 repeat hair samples and 125 new responses. Questionnaire results showed that Faroese women, on average, consumed whale meat for dinner only once every second month, but the frequency and meal size depended on the availability of whale in the community. The geometric mean hair-mercury concentration at the first survey was higher in districts with available whale than in those without (3.03 vs. 1.88 microg/g; P=0.001). The mercury concentration also depended on the frequency of whale meat dinners and on the consumption of dried whale meat. The 36 women who did not eat whale meat at all had a geometric mean hair-mercury concentration of 1.28 microg/g. At the time of the second survey, the geometric mean had decreased to 1.77 microg/g (P
PubMed ID
15533336 View in PubMed
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267 records – page 1 of 27.