A theoretical and empirical base for CBT training and supervision has started to emerge. Increasingly sophisticated maps of CBT therapist competencies have recently been developed, and there is evidence that CBT training and supervision can produce enhancement of CBT skills. However, the evidence base suggesting which specific training techniques are most effective for the development of CBT competencies is lacking.
This paper addresses the question: What training or supervision methods are perceived by experienced therapists to be most effective for training CBT competencies?
120 experienced CBT therapists rated which training or supervision methods in their experience had been most effective in enhancing different types of therapy-relevant knowledge or skills.
In line with the main prediction, it was found that different training methods were perceived to be differentially effective. For instance, reading, lectures/talks and modelling were perceived to be most useful for the acquisition of declarative knowledge, while enactive learning strategies (role-play, self-experiential work), together with modelling and reflective practice, were perceived to be most effective in enhancing procedural skills. Self-experiential work and reflective practice were seen as particularly helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills.
The study provides a framework for thinking about the acquisition and refinement of therapist skills that may help trainers, supervisors and clinicians target their learning objectives with the most effective training strategies.
Assessment received by students affects the way that they conduct their studies and shapes their interests in clinical placements. It is therefore important that mentors and teachers have high quality assessment strategies to ensure the competence of nursing students.
The objective of this study is to describe the views and experiences of nursing students, nursing teachers, and mentors on the final assessment of nursing students in clinical practice. The study also investigates respondents' views on using a standardized national or European scheme for clinical assessment in the future.
Descriptive survey design with a questionnaire.
Implemented in five Finnish universities of applied sciences and in five partner hospitals.
Nursing students (n=276), nursing teachers (n=108) and mentors (n=225).
A questionnaire was used to collect data. Survey data were analyzed by using SPSS version 19. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to characterize the data.
Nursing students felt that they had spent enough time with their mentors during their clinical practice period to ensure that the mentors could assess their behavior. Mentors also evaluated that they had spent enough time with the students. Students and mentors both indicated occasional difficulties with the language used in the competence assessment document. Most of the nursing students and mentors shared the view that it is always necessary for a teacher to be involved in the final assessment discussion.
The study highlights the importance of assessment skills of mentors and the important role of the teachers. Findings from this study indicate that nursing students' clinical practice assessment already includes many good practices, but we still have some difficulties in ensuring effective measures of competence.
Ontario is currently experiencing a nursing shortage crisis. Recruitment and retention of nursing staff are critical issues. In response, retention strategies have been developed by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. The Late Career Nurse Initiative is one such strategy. This innovative program encourages nurses age 55 and older to remain in the workforce by providing opportunities to use their nursing experience in less physically demanding alternate roles for a portion of their time. The Royal Ottawa Health Care Group has developed a clinical coach program in forensics that matches these veteran nurses with new graduates or nurses new to forensic psychiatric nursing. The program has resulted in retention rates of more than 91% after 1 year. This article provides background about the program and highlights its outcomes.
Intercultural communication has become increasingly important in nursing due to the cross-border mobility of patients, health professionals and students. Development of cultural competence continues to be a challenge, particularly among professionals such as educators or healthcare providers who work in professions requiring communication across cultural boundaries. Despite challenges in nursing education related to cultural diversity, competence in intercultural communication has been proven to empower students and to help them grow professionally.
The aim of this study was to describe clinical mentors' experiences of their intercultural communication competence in mentoring culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students during completion of their clinical practice.
Qualitative study design.
The participants were 12 nurses who had previously mentored at least two culturally and linguistically diverse nursing students.
Data were collected during spring 2016 using semi-structured interviews of 12 mentors working in specialized nursing care at one hospital located in central Finland. Data were analyzed using deductive-inductive content analysis. The main concepts of the Integrated Model of Intercultural Communication Competence were used during the semi-structured theme interviews and during analysis. These concepts include empathy, motivation, global attitude, intercultural experience and interaction involvement.
Mentors stated that empathy motivates them in the development of intercultural communication. Mentors experienced a lack of resources and support from their superiors, which caused psychological and ethical strain and reduced mentors' motivation. Mentors openly admitted that they had experienced fear towards unknown cultures, but that this fear was reduced through positive mentoring experiences and cultural encounters.
Continuous education on intercultural communication competence could succeed to further develop clinical mentors' mentoring expertise, which could have the potential to greatly benefit students, patients and staff. Such education could be designed, implemented and measured for its effect in collaboration between health care organizations and higher educational institutions.
BACKGROUND: Mentorship is related to nurses' success in nursing practice linked to professionalism, nursing quality improvement and self-confidence. AIM: To elucidate mentorship of recently registered nurses' view of themselves with regard to their development of nursing competencies by means of the Sympathy-Acceptance-Understanding-Competence (SAUC) model for confirming mentorship. METHODS: Questionnaires, personal interviews and focus group interviews were used for evaluation 2 years after the completion of a year of mentorship, the subjects being eight nurses. FINDINGS: The study showed that novice nurses evaluated their mentors as confirming, which is understood as a key factor for novice nurses' positively reinforced self-relation (perception of themselves) and self-knowledge linked to improved competencies in nursing practice such as more secure and motivated to nurse (S-phase), increased capacity to verbalize nursing situations (A-phase) and to reflect upon and evaluate patient situations based on patients' unique identities as individuals (U-phase), and improved abilities to support patients' own resources as individuals from a more holistic view and to establish collaboration with other professionals. CONCLUSION: Mentorship enabled novice nurses to nurse in a more reflective and holistic way, and their positively reinforced self-relation may be understood as a crucial ingredient for maintaining quality standards in nursing in the future.
A curricular innovation was designed to provide internationally educated nurses with access to nursing licensure and employment. Through a program that includes professionally relevant English language support, mentorship, academic upgrading, workplace experiences, and clinical skills support, a mechanism has been created for internationally educated nurses to earn a bachelor of science in nursing degree and overcome barriers to practicing their profession.
Mental health problems among young women aged 16-24 have increased significantly in recent decades, and interventions are called for. Mentoring is a well-established preventative/promotive intervention for developing adolescents, but we have yet to fully understand how the relationship between the mentor and the protégé forms, develops, and closes. In this study, we focused on a female mentoring program implemented by a Swedish non-governmental organization, The Girls Zone. First, we examined the psychological and social characteristics of the young women who chose to take part in the program as protégés. Second, we investigated adolescent female protégés' own experiences of the relationship process based on a relational-cultural theory perspective.
The mixed-method study included 52 questionnaires and five semi-structured interviews with young women aged 15-26 who had contacted The Girls Zone between 2010 and 2012 in order to find a mentor. Their experience of the mentoring relationships varied in duration. Data were analysed statistically and with inductive qualitative content analysis.
The group of protégés was heterogeneous in that some had poor mental health and some had good mental health. On the other hand, the group was homogenous in that all its members had shown pro-active self-care by actively seeking out the program due to experiences of loneliness and a need to meet and talk with a person who could listen to them. The relationships were initially characterized by feelings of nervousness and ambivalence. However, after some time, these developed into authentic, undemanding, non-hierarchical relationships on the protégés' terms. The closure of relationships aroused feelings of both abandonment and developing strength.
Mentorships that are in line with perspectives of the relational-cultural theory meet the relationship needs expressed by the female protégés. Mentor training should focus on promoting skills such as active listening and respect for the protégé based on an engaged, empathic, and authentic approach in a non-hierarchical relationship. These insights have the potential to inform interventions in several arenas where young women create authentic relationships with older persons, such as in school, in traditional health care contexts, and in youth recreation centres.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe nurses' roles in providing clinical genetic services related to adult onset hereditary disease and factors that influence genetic nursing practice in Canada. The study involved semi-structured telephone interviews with 22 nurses from 5 Canadian provinces with full-time or part-time roles in providing genetic services. The interviews included open-ended questions to elicit descriptions of genetic nursing roles and factors that support and limit opportunities in genetic nursing practice. Thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed that, in addition to genetic counselling, the nurses reported a wide range of roles and responsibilities related to the provision of genetic services that drew directly on their nursing background (e.g., patient assessment, health promotion). Factors identified as supporting genetic nursing roles included nursing background, being part of a multidisciplinary team, and receiving mentorship. Challenges in establishing roles in genetic nursing were related to role ambiguity, lack of recognition of nursing expertise, limited availability of genetics education, isolation, and instability of nursing positions. Recommendations to support the development and expansion of genetic nursing practice were identified. A coordinated national effort among all stakeholders is needed to provide the resources necessary to support the appropriate and effective use of nursing expertise as genetics is integrated into the Canadian health-care system.
The aim of this study was to describe nursing students' perceptions of factors related to three types of student-patient relationship identified in an earlier study: mechanistic, authoritative and facilitative. Another aim was to identify which factors predict the type of relationship. A convenience sample of 310 Bachelor of Health Care students was recruited. The data were collected by using a questionnaire especially designed for this study. Data analysis used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, one-way analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression. Older age was the only significant predictor of a facilitative relationship, whereas fourth-year studies and support received from a person other than supervisor predicted an authoritative relationship. Furthermore, students in authoritative and facilitative relationships had a more positive perception of the patient's attributes as a patient and of patient's improved health and commitment to self-care than students in a mechanistic relationship. A positive perception of the atmosphere during collaboration was more common among students in an authoritative relationship than in a mechanistic relationship. The findings of this study offer useful clues for developing nursing education and empowering patients with a view to improving the quality of nursing care.