To assess the ability and accuracy of elderly men to recall their weights and determine what characteristics might predict recall ability and accuracy.
Eight hundred sixty-nine elderly men (mean age, 84 years), participants of the Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS), responded to a questionnaire asking them to recall their weights at ages 20, 30, 50, and 65 years. Recalled weights were compared with measured weights collected since MFUS began in 1948. Logistic regression was used to predict ability and accuracy of weight recall.
Only 75% of respondents attempted to recall their weights at all 4 ages. Among men recalling 4 weights, fewer than half were accurate within +/- 10%, just 7% were within +/- 5% of their measured weights. Accuracy of recall was significantly and independently associated with body mass index during middle age (5 kg/m(2)) (odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.90) and weight change. Unmarried men were less likely than married men to attempt recalling all 4 weights. Men overweight at middle age were more likely to underestimate their recalled weights.
Studies relating weight in early adulthood or middle age with outcomes in later life should not rely on elderly male participants recalling those weights.
Most epidemiologic studies concerned with Major Depressive Disorder have employed cross-sectional study designs. Assessment of lifetime prevalence in such studies depends on recall of past depressive episodes. Such studies may underestimate lifetime prevalence because of incomplete recall of past episodes (recall bias). An opportunity to evaluate this issue arises with a prospective Canadian study called the National Population Health Survey (NPHS).
The NPHS is a longitudinal study that has followed a community sample representative of household residents since 1994. Follow-up interviews have been completed every two years and have incorporated the Composite International Diagnostic Interview short form for major depression. Data are currently available for seven such interview cycles spanning the time frame 1994 to 2006. In this study, cumulative prevalence was calculated by determining the proportion of respondents who had one or more major depressive episodes during this follow-up interval.
The annual prevalence of MDD ranged between 4% and 5% of the population during each assessment, consistent with existing literature. However, 19.7% of the population had at least one major depressive episode during follow-up. This included 24.2% of women and 14.2% of men. These estimates are nearly twice as high as the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes reported by cross-sectional studies during same time interval.
In this study, prospectively observed cumulative prevalence over a relatively brief interval of time exceeded lifetime prevalence estimates by a considerable extent. This supports the idea that lifetime prevalence estimates are vulnerable to recall bias and that existing estimates are too low for this reason.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of maternal recall of children birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA), using the Danish Medical Birth Register (DBR) as reference and to examine the reliability of recalled BW and its potential correlates. DESIGN: Comparison of data from the DBR and the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). SETTING: Schools in Odense, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1271 and 678 mothers of school children participated with information in the accuracy studies of BW and GA, respectively. The reliability sample of BW was composed of 359 women. METHOD: The agreement between the two sources was evaluated by mean differences (MD), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman's plots. The misclassification of the various BW and GA categories were also estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between recalled and registered BW and GA. RESULTS: There was high agreement between recalled and registered BW (MD =-0.2 g; ICC = 0.94) and GA (MD = 0.3 weeks; ICC = 0.76). Only 1.6% of BW would have been misclassified into low, normal or high BW and 16.5% of GA would have been misclassified into preterm, term or post-term based on maternal recall. The logistic regression revealed that the most important variables in the discordance between recalled and registered BW were ethnicity and parity. Maternal recall of BW was highly reliable (MD =-5.5 g; ICC = 0.93), and reliability remained high across subgroups. CONCLUSION: Maternal recall of BW and GA seems to be sufficiently accurate for clinical and epidemiological use.
To determine the validity of using healthcare worker (HCW) recall of patient interactions and medical record review for contact tracing in a critical care setting.
Trained observers recorded the interactions of nurses, respiratory therapists, and service assistants with study patients in a medical-surgical intensive care unit. These observers' records were used as the reference standard to test the criterion validity of using HCW recall data or medical record review data to identify exposure characteristics. We assessed the effects of previous quarantine of the HCW (because of possible exposure) and the availability of patients' medical records for use as memory aids on the accuracy of HCW recall.
A 10-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Ontario.
Thirty-six HCWs observed caring for 16 patients, for a total of 55 healthcare worker shifts.
Recall accuracy was better among HCWs who were provided with patient medical records as memory aids (P
Weight changes may be an important indicator of an ongoing pathological process. Retrospective self-report might be the only possibility to capture prior weight. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of retrospective recall of body weight in old age and factors that might predict accuracy.
In 2007, 646 participants (mean age, 71.6 years) of the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) answered questions about their present weight and how much they weighed 20-years ago. Of these, 436 had self-reported their weight twenty years earlier and among these 134 had also had their weight assessed at this time point.
Twenty year retrospectively recalled weight underestimated the prior assessed weight by -1.89 ± 5.9 kg and underestimated prior self-reported weight by -0.55 ± 5.2 kg. Moreover, 82.4% of the sample were accurate within 10%, and 45.8% were accurate within 5% of their prior assessed weights; similarly, 84.2% and 58.0% were accurate within 10% and 5% respectively, for prior self-reported weight. Current higher body mass index and preferences of reporting weights ending with zero or five was associated with an underestimation of prior weight, while greater weight change over 20 years, and low Mini-Mental State Scores (MMSE) (
The objective of this study was determine if the inclusion of Canadian-style graphic images would improve the degree to which adolescents attend to, and subsequently are able to recall, novel warning messages in tobacco magazine advertising. Specifically, our goal was to determine if the inclusion of graphic images would (1) increase visual attention, as measured by eye movement patterns and fixation density, and (2) improve memory for tobacco advertisements among a group of 12 to 14 year olds in the western United States. Data were collected from 32 middle school students using a head-mounted eye-tracking device that recorded viewing time, scan path patterns, fixation locations, and dwell time. Participants viewed a series of 20 magazine advertisements that included five U.S. tobacco ads with traditional Surgeon General warning messages and five U.S. tobacco ads that had been modified to include non-traditional messages and Canadian-style graphic images. Following eye tracking, participants completed unaided- and aided-recall exercises. Overall, the participants spent equal amounts of time viewing the advertisements regardless of the type of warning message. However, the warning messages that included the graphic images generated higher levels of visual attention directed specifically toward the message, based on average dwell time and fixation frequency, and were more likely to be accurately recalled than the traditional warning messages.
The Adult Children of Alcoholics Trauma Inventory (ACATI) registers variations in the recalled experience of growing up with problem drinkers. The ACATI includes measures of the duration and severity of parental alcohol-use-related problems, the drinking parents' behavior when intoxicated and sober, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and environmental factors. The ACATI correlated well with the Family Tree Questionnaire and showed excellent 14-day test-retest reliability for most variables. The test-retest was carried out in 2009 at a counseling service for young adults from families with alcohol-use-related problems in Denmark (N = 49).
The aim of this study was to present adult norms and to estimate the test-retest reliability for durational and response accuracy measures on the word sequence production test, Months Backward. A total of 216 neurologically intact adults (aged 18-88) stratified by sex, age, and education took the test at maximum speed. Errors and speech duration were recorded. A retest was conducted with 40 participants after 3 weeks. Altogether 94% of the participants completed the test without error. Errors were associated with slow performance. Duration was predicted by years of education (beta = -0.39) and self-reported dyslexia (beta = 0.19). The test-retest reliability was 0.82 for duration and 0.97 for errors. A regression formula for adjustment of logarithmically transformed duration scores is provided.
Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that, as people age, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. This study investigated whether these age differences in goals are reflected in how younger (aged 18-36, n = 111) and older adults (aged 62-86, n = 104) evaluated, remembered information from and were persuaded by health messages.
Participants were randomly assigned to read health pamphlets with identical factual information but emphasizing emotional or non-emotional goals.
Findings showed that health messages that emphasized emotional goals, but not those that emphasized future-oriented or neutral goals, were better remembered, were evaluated more positively and led to greater behavioral changes among older adults, but not younger adults.
These findings suggest that health messages targeting older adults may be more effective if they are framed in ways that emphasize love and caring.