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The 1% of the population accountable for 63% of all violent crime convictions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259131
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Falk, O
Wallinius, M
Lundström, S
Frisell, T
Anckarsäter, H
Kerekes, N
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;49(4):559-71
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aggression - psychology
Criminals - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Population-based studies on violent crime and background factors may provide an understanding of the relationships between susceptibility factors and crime. We aimed to determine the distribution of violent crime convictions in the Swedish population 1973-2004 and to identify criminal, academic, parental, and psychiatric risk factors for persistence in violent crime.
The nationwide multi-generation register was used with many other linked nationwide registers to select participants. All individuals born in 1958-1980 (2,393,765 individuals) were included. Persistent violent offenders (those with a lifetime history of three or more violent crime convictions) were compared with individuals having one or two such convictions, and to matched non-offenders. Independent variables were gender, age of first conviction for a violent crime, nonviolent crime convictions, and diagnoses for major mental disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.
A total of 93,642 individuals (3.9%) had at least one violent conviction. The distribution of convictions was highly skewed; 24,342 persistent violent offenders (1.0% of the total population) accounted for 63.2% of all convictions. Persistence in violence was associated with male sex (OR 2.5), personality disorder (OR 2.3), violent crime conviction before age 19 (OR 2.0), drug-related offenses (OR 1.9), nonviolent criminality (OR 1.9), substance use disorder (OR 1.9), and major mental disorder (OR 1.3).
The majority of violent crimes are perpetrated by a small number of persistent violent offenders, typically males, characterized by early onset of violent criminality, substance abuse, personality disorders, and nonviolent criminality.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24173408 View in PubMed
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A 4-year review of pediatric mental health emergencies in Alberta.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148300
Source
CJEM. 2009 Sep;11(5):447-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Amanda S Newton
Samina Ali
David W Johnson
Christina Haines
Rhonda J Rosychuk
Rachel A Keaschuk
Philip Jacobs
Terry P Klassen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. mandi.newton@ualberta.ca
Source
CJEM. 2009 Sep;11(5):447-54
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Alberta - epidemiology
Analysis of Variance
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Humans
Infant
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
We sought to determine and compare rates of pediatric mental health presentations and associated costs in emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta.
We examined 16 154 presentations by 12 589 patients (patient age
PubMed ID
19788789 View in PubMed
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A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107628
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Sheilagh Hodgins
Sara Lövenhag
Mattias Rehn
Kent W Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Maria-Ungdom Research Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014 May;23(5):347-60
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Antisocial Personality Disorder - diagnosis - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Crime - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Parents
Patient Acceptance of Health Care - statistics & numerical data
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse Treatment Centers
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Population
Violence - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.
PubMed ID
23989597 View in PubMed
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A 15-year national follow-up: legislation is not enough to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162773
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;42(9):747-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Alice Keski-Valkama
Eila Sailas
Markku Eronen
Anna-Maija Koivisto
Jouko Lönnqvist
Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
Author Affiliation
Vanha Vaasa Hospital, PO Box 13, Vaasa, 65381 Finland. alice.keski-valkama@vvs.fi
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;42(9):747-52
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Coercion
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental Health Services - legislation & jurisprudence - standards
Middle Aged
Patient Discharge - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Registries
Restraint, Physical - legislation & jurisprudence - utilization
Abstract
Seclusion and restraint are frequent but controversial coercive measures used in psychiatric treatment. Legislative efforts have started to emerge to control the use of these measures in many countries. In the present study, the nationwide trends in the use of seclusion and restraint were investigated in Finland over a 15-year span which was characterised by legislative changes aiming to clarify and restrict the use of these measures.
The data were collected during a predetermined week in 1990, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2004, using a structured postal survey of Finnish psychiatric hospitals. The numbers of inpatients during the study weeks were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register.
The total number of the secluded and restrained patients declined as did the number of all inpatients during the study weeks, but the risk of being secluded or restrained remained the same over time when compared to the first study year. The duration of the restraint incidents did not change, but the duration of seclusion increased. A regional variation was found in the use of coercive measures.
Legislative changes solely cannot reduce the use of seclusion and restraint or change the prevailing treatment cultures connected with these measures. The use of seclusion and restraint should be vigilantly monitored and ethical questions should be under continuous scrutiny.
PubMed ID
17598058 View in PubMed
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A 40-year history of overweight children in Stockholm: life-time overweight, morbidity, and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature23563
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 Sep;18(9):585-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1994
Author
L. DiPietro
H O Mossberg
A J Stunkard
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia.
Source
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 Sep;18(9):585-90
Date
Sep-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology - etiology
Digestive System Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Obesity - complications - epidemiology - mortality
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We describe the 40-year weight history and adult morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 504 overweight children, aged 2 months to 16 years, who were admitted for investigation of their overweight to four children's hospitals in Stockholm between 1921 and 1947. Follow-up information was gathered by questionnaire at 10-year intervals, most recently in 1980-1983 (n = 458), on weight history (based on the body mass index (BMI = kg/m2)), as well as prevalence of cardiovascular disease (n = 143), diabetes (n = 39), and cancer (all types (n = 20)), reported during the 40 years of follow-up, and mortality from all causes (n = 55), determined from death certificate. The sample of overweight children remained overweight as adults; after age 55 years, the BMI began to decline for both genders. Female subjects were heavier than their male counterparts from postpuberty onward. Subjects who died by the 40-year follow-up and those reporting cardiovascular disease were significantly (P
PubMed ID
7812410 View in PubMed
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[1880-2005--from poverty diseases to the affluent society's diseases]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58100
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006 Jan 5;126(1):38-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-5-2006

The 2009 Nobel conference on the role of genetics in promoting suicide prevention and the mental health of the population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98540
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Jan;15(1):12-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
D. Wasserman
L. Terenius
J. Wasserman
M. Sokolowski
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, The National Prevention of Suicide and Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute (KI), Stockholm, Sweden. Danuta.Wasserman@ki.se
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Jan;15(1):12-7
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Congresses as topic
Humans
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Mental health
Nobel Prize
Population Groups
Suicide - prevention & control
Abstract
A 3-day Nobel Conference entitled 'The role of genetics in promoting suicide prevention and the mental health of the population' was held at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institute (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden, during 8-10 June 2009. The conference was sponsored by the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine and organized by the National Prevention for Suicide and Mental Ill-Health and the Center for Molecular Medicine at KI. The program consisted of 19 invited presentations, covering the genetic basis of mood/psychotic disorders and substance abuse in relation to suicide, with topics ranging from cellular-molecular mechanisms to (endo)phenotypes of mental disorders at the level of the individual and populations. Here, we provide an overview based on the highlights of what was presented.
PubMed ID
20029410 View in PubMed
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Absolute risk of suicide after first hospital contact in mental disorder.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130761
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Oct;68(10):1058-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Merete Nordentoft
Preben Bo Mortensen
Carsten Bøcker Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Denmark. mn@dadlnet.dk
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Oct;68(10):1058-64
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bipolar Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Comorbidity
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Middle Aged
Mood Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology
Schizophrenic Psychology
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Suicide - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Estimates of lifetime risk of suicide in mental disorders were based on selected samples with incomplete follow-up.
To estimate, in a national cohort, the absolute risk of suicide within 36 years after the first psychiatric contact.
Prospective study of incident cases followed up for as long as 36 years. Median follow-up was 18 years.
Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers.
A total of 176,347 persons born from January 1, 1955, through December 31, 1991, were followed up from their first contact with secondary mental health services after 15 years of age until death, emigration, disappearance, or the end of 2006. For each participant, 5 matched control individuals were included.
Absolute risk of suicide in percentage of individuals up to 36 years after the first contact.
Among men, the absolute risk of suicide (95% confidence interval [CI]) was highest for bipolar disorder, (7.77%; 6.01%-10.05%), followed by unipolar affective disorder (6.67%; 5.72%-7.78%) and schizophrenia (6.55%; 5.85%-7.34%). Among women, the highest risk was found among women with schizophrenia (4.91%; 95% CI, 4.03%-5.98%), followed by bipolar disorder (4.78%; 3.48%-6.56%). In the nonpsychiatric population, the risk was 0.72% (95% CI, 0.61%-0.86%) for men and 0.26% (0.20%-0.35%) for women. Comorbid substance abuse and comorbid unipolar affective disorder significantly increased the risk. The co-occurrence of deliberate self-harm increased the risk approximately 2-fold. Men with bipolar disorder and deliberate self-harm had the highest risk (17.08%; 95% CI, 11.19%-26.07%).
This is the first analysis of the absolute risk of suicide in a total national cohort of individuals followed up from the first psychiatric contact, and it represents, to our knowledge, the hitherto largest sample with the longest and most complete follow-up. Our estimates are lower than those most often cited, but they are still substantial and indicate the continuous need for prevention of suicide among people with mental disorders.
PubMed ID
21969462 View in PubMed
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Abstinence and current or former alcohol use as predictors of disability retirement in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265157
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Jun;43(4):373-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Leena Kaila-Kangas
Teija Kivekäs
Jaana Laitinen
Aki Koskinen
Tommi Härkänen
Leena Hirvonen
Päivi Leino-Arjas
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Jun;43(4):373-80
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Abstinence - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Disabled Persons - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Pensions
Prospective Studies
Records as Topic
Retirement
Risk factors
Abstract
According to previous studies, abstinence from alcohol increases the risk of disability retirement (DR). We studied whether former alcohol users' poor mental or physical health might have contributed to this result.
Prospective population-based study of 3621 occupationally active Finns aged 30-55 years at baseline. Disability pension data for 2000-2011 was retrieved from national pension records. We examined medically certified disability retirement due to all causes and due to mental disorders among lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, those with an alcohol use disorder irrespective of consumption and current users, further classified according to weekly intake of alcohol. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated in a clinical examination and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cox regression was used.
Neither lifelong abstinence nor alcohol consumption, even at hazardous levels, without alcohol use disorder was associated with disability retirement. Compared with light drinkers, former drinkers' hazard ratio for DR due to mental disorders was 2.67 (95% CI 1.39-5.13), allowing for somatic and mental morbidity, physical and psychosocial workload, health behaviour and socio-demographic factors. The respective hazard ratio of DR due to all causes for those with alcohol use disorder was 2.17 (1.49-3.16) and of DR due to mental disorders 4.04 (2.02 to 8.06).
Lifelong abstinence did not predict disability retirement. Former drinkers and people with alcohol use disorders were at a multi-fold risk of work disability due to mental disorders compared with light drinkers, thus it is important to support their work ability.
PubMed ID
25743875 View in PubMed
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Access to physician treatment for a mental disorder: a regional analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198775
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;35(2):61-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
H. Stuart
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. hh11@post.queensu.ca
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2000 Feb;35(2):61-70
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alberta - epidemiology
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology
Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Middle Aged
Physicians - supply & distribution
Prevalence
Regression Analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study examined (1) disparities in the proportion of persons who accessed a physician for treatment of a diagnosed mental disorder across 17 health regions in Alberta, Canada, and (2) the extent to which regional disparities in physician access could be explained by differences in regional demographies, population needs, or physician supply.
The study illustrates the use of ecological comparisons for regional health system performance evaluations. Regional characteristics were aggregated from four sources of data: the health insurance registry file (population denominators and regional demographies), physician claims data (treatment access), census data (social indicators of population need), and the medical directory of the College of Physicians of Surgeons (physician supply).
Regional variability in needs-adjusted measures of access to physician-based treatment services were comparatively small (varying by a factor of 1.6). Models containing adjustments for demography, need, and physician supply explained 41% of regional variation in access. Of the total variation explained, physician supply explained a smaller proportion (39%) in comparison to social demography and needs (61%). Few large regional imbalances were noted when needs-adjusted and supply-adjusted estimates were compared. Only two areas appeared to be underserviced in comparison to their local needs, reflecting approximately 6% of the provincial population.
While all three study factors proved important, findings support the broad conclusion that social demography and social risk (a proxy for need) will remain the key determinants predicting access to physician services for treatment of mental disorders in publicly funded health systems.
PubMed ID
10784368 View in PubMed
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1553 records – page 1 of 156.