In a prospective population-based study, mothers and fathers of 1,247 children reported their physical and mental health during pregnancy, after delivery, within the child's first 18 months of life, and at 12 years. Additionally, maternal health clinic nurses rated parents' well-being and perceived need for support. At age 12, child outcomes were also measured using CBCL and YSR externalizing and internalizing scales. Results indicate that both ante- and postnatal maternal distress predicted future externalizing problems in offspring. Conversely, fathers' postnatal distress predicted subsequent internalizing problems. Furthermore, mother's depressed mood in the first trimester best predicted the child's externalizing problems at age 12. Nurses's ratings of mother's antenatal and perinatal need for support, perinatal distress, and family's need for support were associated with both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Maternal antenatal distress increases the risk of offspring's externalizing problems in preadolescense, and postnatal distress in either parent increases the risk of internalizing problems. Parental self-reports and indirect ratings from health care providers during pregnancy and infancy may therefore reliably recognize offspring at risk for subsequent psychiatric symptomatology.
Neurologic, psychiatric and psychophysiologic (computed EEG) examinations were carried out in 100 Chernobyl accident's survivors who had got acute radiation sickness (ARS), in 100 Chernobyl liquidators who worked for 5 or more years in the zone (1986-1987) as well as in control groups: 20 normal age- and gender-matched adults and 50 veterans of the Afganistan war with consequences of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 50 veterans with both PTSD and mild closed head injury. Left-hemispheric cortical-limbic and diencephalic right-hemispheric syndromes were revealed. Left-hemispheric frontal-temporal-limbic dysfunction was associated with schizophrenia-like syndrome, while diencephalic right-hemispheric dysfunction--with the affective syndrome. Doses more than 0.3 Sv (including the ARS-patients) resulted more frequently in the left-hemispheric cortical-limbic and schizophrenia-like syndromes. Diencephalic right-hemispheric and affective syndromes were more frequently observed after the exposure to doses less [corrected] than 0.3 Sv. Development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in the irradiated Chernobyl survivors could be due to radiation-induced left fronto-temporal-limbic dysfunction following irradiation doses more than 0.3 Sv (including the ARS-patients). The cerebral patterns of schizophrenia and postradiation brain damage are similar. Persons exposed fo 0.3 Sv and more could be classified as the group of higher risk of the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The authors suggest that ionizing radiation may be an environmental trigger factor which can cause schizophrenia in the predisposed subjects.
We prospectively studied parental mental health after suddenly losing a son in a military training accident. Parents (N = 32) were interviewed at 1, 2 and 23 years after the death of their son. The General Health Questionnaire and Expanded Texas Inventory of Grief were self-reported at 1, 2, 5, and 23 years; the Inventory of Complicated Grief was self-reported at 23 years. We observed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (57% and 45%, respectively), particularly major depression (43% and 31%, respectively). Only one mental disorder was diagnosed at the 23-year follow-up. Grief and psychological distress were highest at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Spouses exhibited a high concordance of psychological distress. Mothers reported more intense grief reactions than did fathers. The loss of a son during military service may have a substantial impact on parental mental health particularly during the first 2 years after death. Spouses' grief can be interrelated and may contribute to their psychological distress.
The impact of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) on psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses, personality variables and self evaluation was studied in a 12 year-follow-up of patients with NF 1 in the city of Göteborg, Sweden. 48 living adult patients with NF1 were re-evaluated in 1990 in a 12 year long time follow up study. The patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The following scales were used; the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS), the Karolinska Scales of Personality inventory (KSP) and the Self-Evaluation Scale (SES). A significant psychopathology was found in the NFI patients, p
The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of psychiatric disorders in epilepsy patients who had received surgical treatment, especially amygdalohippocampectomy (AHE), for the relief of medically intractable seizures. Forty-seven subjects, treated during the period 1987-1991 in the Danish epilepsy surgery programme (EPIKIR), entered a retrospective interview study. Of these, 37 had undergone AHE. Preoperative psychiatric morbidity was assessed through interview and available case notes, including a routine psychiatric interview. Postoperative psychiatric morbidity was assessed by the use of the Present State Examination. A total of six subjects (five AHE subjects) developed depressive disorders of various duration and severity after operation. In three subjects this occurred "de novo". No paranoid-hallucinatory psychoses developed within the follow-up period (a minimum of one year), and the presence of psychiatric disorders could not be associated with either lateralization of cerebral dominance of histopathological findings. Thus, depression appears to be the most frequent psychiatric problem following epilepsy surgery. Although the present study mainly deals with AHE, this finding is in accordance with the results of recent findings concerning anterior temporal lobe resection.
Psychosomatic borderline disorders were observed in 366 individuals during prophylactic medical examination of 675 employers of big oil-chemical enterprise. The main group consisted of 189 cases of psychosomatic disturbances. They included the very borderline disorders (neuroses, psychogenic depressions, psychopathies) as well as cyclothymias and schizothymic personal deviations too. The majority of disorders were presented by depressive and asthenic syndromes cases. The direct correlation was found between the frequencies of such disturbances rise and the duration of industrial work in conditions of professional hazards. The role of social and cultural factors in psychosomatic disorders development was also established.
Psychic disorders are not infrequent findings in children who survived Chernobyl accident. This fact necessitates special psychotherapeutic, psychocorrective and psychoprophylactic treatment which should be added to standard therapeutic care in sanatoria.
Analyzes the problem of assessing the severity of bodily injury leading to mental disorders in the victim. Discusses a working classification of mental disorders resultant from various environmental factors (injuries), intended for forensic medical experts, psychiatrists, and physicians of other specialties. Offers a new methodological approach to forensic medical and psychiatric expert evaluation of such cases. Describes the typical examples from practical forensic medical and psychiatric expert evaluations.