143 people treated for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were included in a retrospective follow-up study. Sequelae and epidemiological characteristics in 114 individuals were analysed. The case fatality rate and the prevalence of residual paresis were low, 1.4 and 2.7%, respectively. However, 40 (35.7%) individuals were found to have a postencephalitic syndrome after a median follow-up time of 47 months, and a majority (77.5%) of these were classified as moderate to severe. Various mental disorders, balance and co-ordination disorders and headache were the most frequently reported symptoms. Increasing age was correlated to a longer duration of hospital stay, longer convalescence and increased risk of permanent sequelae. Results from a neuropsychiatric questionnaire showed marked differences between the subjects with sequelae compared to controls. 57% had noticed a tick bite before admission, and 48% were aware of at least one person in their environment who previously had contracted TBE. 79% were permanent residents or visited endemic areas often and regularly. In conclusion, we have found that TBE in the Stockholm area has a low case fatality rate, but gives rise to a considerable number of different neurological and mental sequelae, which justifies vaccination of a defined risk population in endemic areas.
Organizational forms of health care delivery for patients with combined somatic and mental pathology have been analyzed. The characteristics of the system of referrals, hospital admissions and treatment in psychiatric departments for patients with combined severe somatic and mental pathology is described. The basic tasks and functions of such departments are listed. Somatic diseases are presented according to the groups of diseases, most frequently occurring in mentally ill patients.
In a prospective study of 349 patients with acute poisoning treated at The Montreal General Hospital in 1972 benzodiazepines and non-barbiturate hypnotics were found to be the most frequent putative drugs. Of the 108 patients admitted to hospital 37% had taken an overdose of a drug prescribed for them by their psychiatrist or other physician; 48% had formerly taken an overdose of drugs and 44% had had previous psychiatric treatment. Unconsciousness, respiratory depression, metabolic acidosis and acidemia, and hypokalemia were the most frequent clinical abnormalities observed. Treatment was supportive. There were six deaths. The average duration of coma was short; only five surviving patients remained unconscious for more than 24 hours. Respiratory complications were frequent.It is recommended that more attention be paid to recognizing patients whose behaviour pattern might include such an impulsive gesture, and that alternatives be found for barbiturate and non-barbiturate hypnotics.
In 1988, Becker and Murphy [Becker, G.S., Murphy, K.M., 1988. A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy, 96, 675-700.] launched a theory in which they proposed that the perspective of rational decision-making could be applied also to cases of addictive behaviour. This paper discusses the theory's assumptions of interpersonal variation and stability in time preferences on the basis of estimates derived from three groups of people with different consumption levels of illegal intoxicants. We find that active injectors of heroin and amphetamine have a higher discount rate than a group reporting that they have never used the substances. Of greater interest, though not in accordance with Becker and Murphy's assumption of stability, we also find that the discount rate among active and former users differs significantly. These findings raise the question of whether a high time-preference rate leads to addiction or whether the onset of an addiction itself alters people's inter-temporal equilibrium.
In Norway, the use of cannabis was introduced by a resourceful group of oppositional middle-class adolescents in the late 1960s. At the beginning of the 1970s there were, however, signs of a change in the recruitment of the users: youths in trouble from lower social levels gradually started to use the drug. In a prospective longitudinal study of 1311 Norwegian pupils aged 13-19, the possible links between normative and political opposition, mental health and the use of cannabis were investigated. The findings indicate that the group that experiments with cannabis, and use the drugs a few times, is still mainly characterized by a political and normative "oppositional" engagement. Heavy users of cannabis, however, also have family problems and suffer from poor mental health. Thus, the study draws attention to the importance of distinguishing between two different clusters of longitudinal predictors for adolescent cannabis use: the first consists of subcultural opposition and certain personality traits, and seems to predict the earlier stages of use. The second consists of psychosocial problems and poor mental health. From this study one may not conclude that this second cluster predicts heavy cannabis involvement. We have, however, shown that it correlates with heavy involvement, cross-sectionally.
The suicide rate in Alberta is consistently above the Canadian average. Health care use profiles of those who die by suicide in Alberta are currently unknown.
Death records were selected for people aged 25 to 64 with suicide coded as the underlying cause of death from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2006. The death records were linked to administrative records pertaining to physician visits, emergency department visits, inpatient hospital separations, and community mental health visits. The control group was the Alberta population aged 25 to 64 who did not die by suicide. Frequency estimates were produced to determine the characteristics of the study population. Odds ratios relating to demographics, exposure to health care services, and case-control status were estimated with logistic regression.
Almost 90% of suicides had a health service in the year before their death. Suicides averaged 16.6 visits per person, compared with 7.7 visits for non-suicides. Much of the health service use among people who died by suicide appears to have been driven by mental disorders.
Information about health service delivery to those who die by suicide can guide prevention and intervention efforts.
Adolescent delinquency and alcohol abuse have become a growing concern in Russia. Psychopathology, a dysfunctional family and specific personality factors have all been linked to addictive and antisocial behavior. Since delinquent youth represent a specific risk group, where alcohol misuse tends to be more pronounced than in the general population, the objectives of this study were: 1) to compare differences in personality and parenting factors, and in psychopathology in juvenile delinquents with and without alcohol abuse; and 2) to evaluate the associations between alcohol abuse, personality and parenting factors, after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.
Psychopathology, including alcohol abuse, was assessed by means of a psychiatric interview in 229 Russian incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. In addition, alcohol use, personality, and parenting factors were assessed by self-reports.
Alcohol-abusing delinquents (n=138) scored significantly higher on novelty seeking and maternal emotional warmth and reported higher levels of psychopathology, as compared to nonalcohol-abusing delinquents (n=91). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that personality and parenting factors were significantly related to alcohol abuse, even after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.
Alcohol-abusing delinquents are at risk for a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol abuse is associated with personality and parenting factors independently of comorbid psychopathology. Early interventions with high-risk youths may help to reduce their psychiatric problems and alcohol abuse.
Studies of alcohol habits in general psychiatric populations are scarce. The objective was to investigate alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling in a clinical sample of psychiatric outpatients. A further aim was to study age and gender differences in the rates of these habits.
Data were collected among psychiatric outpatients with mainly mood (47%) and anxiety (35%) disorders. A questionnaire package was distributed, including AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), DUDIT (Drug Use Disorders Identification Test), tobacco items, and gambling items. Two major drinking categories were formed: "Nonhazardous alcohol use" (NH) and "Alcohol use above hazardous levels" (AH).
In total, 2160 patients (65% females) responded to the questionnaire package. The AH rate was high among psychiatric outpatients (28.4%), particularly among young females (46.6%). Young female patients also reported a high prevalence of problematic drug use (13.8%). Problematic drug use, daily smoking, and problematic gambling were frequent. The unhealthy habits were linked to AH.
Alcohol and drug use, smoking, and gambling are all highly prevalent among psychiatric outpatients. Young females are in particular need of attention. Interventions should be tailored for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and applied within routine psychiatric care.
A sample of 200 men from the general population of suburban Stockholm was investigated regarding alcohol consumption, with the aim of studying psychosocial factors in relation to consumption. Three symptoms related to heavy drinking were studied: (1) Inability to cut down or stop drinking, referred to here as subjective, relative loss of control over drinking; (2) morning shakes and malaise relieved by drinking, termed morning drinks; and (3) amnesia induced by alcohol, referred to as blackouts. The subjects were divided into three groups: (I) 41 men with low alcohol consumption without any symptom of alcoholism, (II) 106 men with low, moderate or high alcohol consumption with different numbers of such symptoms and (III) 53 heavy-drinking men with two or three symptoms. There was a higher frequency of psycho-somatic problems in group III (51%) (p less than 0.01) than in group I (22%). The children of group III had greater problems at school. Group III had more often been judged guilty of crimes (26%) (p less than 0.01) than groups II (12%) and I (5%). Group III had a significantly higher frequency of nervous problems (61%) than the other groups, and 8% of group III had been in-patients at a clinic for treatment of alcoholics.