to evaluate the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age, and length of reproductive period.
Retrospective data on age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 years (mean 46.32?±?15.42). Finger and metacarpal length ratios as well as visual classification of finger ratio types, were estimated from the x-rays.
We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure, were associated with a later menarche and a shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics of menopause in Aboriginal women, in particular Canadian Aboriginal women. METHODS: An extensive review of articles extracted from both medical and non-medical databases was undertaken. The search strategy combined the key word "menopause" with any of the following terms: Aboriginals, Native Americans, Natives, Indians, Métis, Inuit, Eskimo, and Indigenous people. RESULTS: A total of 29 records were found, 13 of which had results relevant to the objective of the study. These articles suggest that menopause may have a positive effect on the lives of Aboriginal women with respect to increasing their freedom within the community. Aboriginal women appear to experience fewer vasomotor symptoms than other North American women. CONCLUSION: More research needs to be done to determine the effect menopause has on Canadian Aboriginal women and their coexisting diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. This work will allow health care providers to make more informed decisions on managing Aboriginal women's transition through menopause in areas such as hormone replacement therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate determinants of the acceptability of isoflavone products among postmenopausal women with regard to social and lifestyle factors, dietary habits, health concerns, food beliefs, menopausal symptoms and therapies, and to elucidate preferences for specific products. METHODS: A consumer survey was conducted among postmenopausal women in four European countries (Germany, Denmark, Italy and the UK), including a total of 465 respondents. RESULTS: The declared acceptability of isoflavones was highest in Germany (80%), followed by Italy (75%), the UK (59%) and Denmark (55%; p
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical expression of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) in women, their use of exogenous sex hormones, and the effects on AIP. DESIGN: A retrospective population-based study. SUBJECTS: All women aged > or =18 years (n = 190) with DNA-diagnosed AIP in northern Sweden. RESULTS: A total of 166 women (87%) participated; 91 (55%) had manifest AIP. Severe attacks were reported by 82%; 39% reported recurrent premenstrual AIP attacks and 22% reported chronic AIP symptoms. Oral hormonal contraceptives had been used by 58% of all these women and by 50 with manifest AIP (57%). Twelve women (24%) associated oral contraceptives as precipitating AIP attacks; in nine cases their first attack. One woman experienced relief from AIP symptoms. On commencing their treatment, 72% of the women with manifest AIP had not yet suffered their first attack. Twenty-two women (25%) aged > or =45 years had used hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) at menopause to remedy climacteric symptoms (the percutaneous route was most frequently used); no AIP attack was precipitated. HRT to remedy vaginal dryness was used by 26 women (28%) aged > or =45 years without triggering an AIP attack. Miscarriages were more frequent in women with manifest AIP (50%) than in the latent group (30%, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: About half of the women with AIP had used oral hormonal contraceptives. As 25% of women with manifest AIP reported attacks associated with such drugs, caution must still be recommended. Menopausal HRT only rarely affected the disorder. Miscarriage was more common amongst women with manifest AIP.
From October 1977 to November 1982 premenopausal and menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients were included in a randomized trial (DBCG 77B). The primary surgical treatment was total mastectomy with axillary dissection. In the trial, a total of 1,034 patients were enrolled and received postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and were further randomized to 1) no systemic treatment, 2) cyclophosphamide, or 3) cyclophosphamide + methotrexate + 5-fluorouracil. The chemotherapy was given for one year. With a median observation time of ten years, the survival was 45, 60 and 62%, respectively. Retrospectively, the survival benefit was observed to be most pronounced in the age group less than 40 years, in patients with tumour size less than or equal to 5 cm or with less than or equal to 3 positive lymph nodes. In high-risk premenopausal and menopausal patients adjuvant chemotherapy combined with RT thus resulted in a more than 25% relative reduction in mortality at ten years of observation compared with RT alone.
The role of antiestrogen treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer patients with high risk of recurrent disease is evaluated in a nationwide, prospective trial conducted by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). After total mastectomy and postoperative radiotherapy (RT), 840 patients were randomized to treatment with tamoxifen (RT + TAM) for one year, and 824 were randomized to no further therapy (RT). The recurrenceree survival (RFS) after ten years of lifeable analysis is 31% in the RT + TAM treated group, and 28% in the RT group (p = 0.01). Survival is 38% and 34% in the two treatment groups, respectively (p = 0.04). The data were further analyzed with respect to prognostic factors such as age, number of positive nodes, tumour size, and degree of anaplasia. Survival is prolonged in nearly all subgroups of patients treated with RT + TAM. However, the prolongation is only significant in patients with four or more positive nodes, with tumours of less than 5 centimeters or with tumours of anaplasia grade II. Estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) concentrations were measured in tumours from 309 and 219 patients, respectively. Only patients with ER and PgR values above 100 fmol/mg cytosol protein seemed to have a prolongation of survival. In conclusion, a modest survival benefit is achieved with one year of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Nevertheless, this is the first example of a systemic treatment approach being able to change the fatal course of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. By means of endocrine therapy, and in the context of a new randomized trial, the DBCG will try to improve the survival in these patients even further.
BACKGROUND: The risk of contralateral breast cancer is increased twofold to fivefold for breast cancer patients. A registry-based cohort study in Denmark suggested that radiation treatment of the first breast cancer might increase the risk for contralateral breast cancer among 10-year survivors. PURPOSE: Our goal was to assess the role of radiation in the development of contralateral breast cancer. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 56,540 women in Denmark diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1943 through 1978. Case patients were 529 women who developed contralateral breast cancer 8 or more years after first diagnosis. Controls were women with breast cancer who did not develop contralateral breast cancer. One control was matched to each case patient on the basis of age, calendar year of initial breast cancer diagnosis, and survival time. Radiation dose to the contralateral breast was estimated for each patient on the basis of radiation measurements and abstracted treatment information. The anatomical position of each breast cancer was also abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: Radiotherapy had been administered to 82.4% of case patients and controls, and the mean radiation dose to the contralateral breast was estimated to be 2.51 Gy. Radiotherapy did not increase the overall risk of contralateral breast cancer (relative risk = 1.04; 95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.46), and there was no evidence that risk varied with radiation dose, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The second tumors in case patients were evenly distributed in the medial, lateral, and central portions of the breast, a finding that argues against a causal role of radiotherapy in tumorigenesis. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of women in our series were perimenopausal or postmenopausal (53% total versus 38% premenopausal and 9% of unknown status) and received radiotherapy at an age when the breast tissue appears least susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of radiation. Based on a dose of 2.51 Gy and estimates of radiation risk from other studies, a relative risk of only 1.18 would have been expected for a population of women exposed at an average age of 51 years. Thus, our data provide additional evidence that there is little if any risk of radiation-induced breast cancer associated with exposure of breast tissue to low-dose radiation (e.g., from mammographic x rays or adjuvant radiotherapy) in later life.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the efficacy of adjuvant tamoxifen (TAM) in postmenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer. The primary surgical treatment was total mastectomy with axillary sampling. There were 1,650 eligible patients; 829 were randomized to receive postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and 821, to receive RT + TAM (10 mg three times daily for 1 yr). The 2 groups were identical with respect to age, tumor size, number of positive lymph nodes, degree of anaplasia, and estrogen and progesterone receptor content. Overall recurrence-free survival at 6 years was 39% in the RT group, compared to 48% in the RT + TAM group (P = 0.0008), but there was no significant difference in survival (P = 0.14). From retrospective analyses of recurrence-free survival according to prognostic variables, it appears that 4 subgroups of patients benefited from adjuvant TAM: those less than 69 years of age, those with 4 or more positive nodes, those with grade I-II tumors, and those with high estrogen receptor values (greater than 100 fmol/mg cytosol protein).