Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given to Canadian Aboriginal neonates in selected communities. Severe reactions and deaths associated with BCG have been reported among infants born with immunodeficiency syndromes. The main objective of this study was to estimate threshold values for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) incidence, above which BCG is associated with greater risk than benefit.
A Markov model was developed to simulate the natural histories of tuberculosis (TB) and SCID in children from birth to 14 years. The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARI) and SCID incidence were varied in analyses. The model compared a scenario of no vaccination to intervention with BCG. Appropriate variability and uncertainty analyses were conducted. Outcomes included TB incidence and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).
In sensitivity analyses, QALYs were lower among vaccinated infants if the ARI was 0.1% and the rate of SCID was higher than 4.2 per 100,000. Assuming an ARI of 1%, this threshold increased to 41 per 100,000. In uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo simulations) which assumed an ARI of 0.1%, QALYs were not significantly increased by BCG unless SCID incidence is 0. With this ARI, QALYs were significantly decreased among vaccinated children if SCID incidence exceeds 23 per 100,000. BCG is associated with a significant increase in QALYs if the ARI is 1%, and SCID incidence is below 5 per 100,000.
The possibility that Canadian Aboriginal children are at increased risk for SCID has serious implications for continued BCG use in this population. In this context, enhanced TB Control--including early detection and treatment of infection--may be a safer, more effective alternative.
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Fifty-six autopsy protocols showing the presence of caseous pneumonia in babies and infants who died in 1947-1994 were examined. In the age group of children who died from caseous pneumonia (n = 88), babies and infants made up 63.6%. In 1947-1962, caseous pneumonia was found to frequently complicate a primary tuberculosis process both in babies (28.3%) and in 1-3-year-old infants (22.2%). At the same time lifetime tuberculosis was not recognized in 21.4% of cases and 26.8% died within the first 3 days of their hospital stay.
The aims of the present study were to document the epidemiology, clinical features and complications of childhood acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in The Sudan during both an inter-epidemic (endemic) period (1985-1986), and the 1988 serogroup A epidemic; and to examine the phenotypic and genetic similarities and differences of Neisseria meningitidis strains isolated in The Sudan and Sweden. A new enzyme immunoassay test (Pharmacia Meningitis EIA-Test) was evaluated as a potential rapid diagnostic method for the detection of Haemophilus influenzae (HI) type b, Neisseria meningitidis (MC) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNC). The test was found to have good sensitivity (0.86) and specificity (0.95) in the inter-epidemic period; and to be adaptable to the field work in The Sudan during the 1988 MC epidemic. During inter-epidemic (endemic) situations in The Sudan, greater than 90% of childhood ABM was caused by one of the three organisms, HI type b, MC and PNC. HI accounted for 57% of the cases. The peak incidence (76%) of HI cases was in infants (less than 12 months) similar to the situation in other African countries. The overall case fatality ratio was 18.6%. Prospective follow-up of survivors for 3-4 years revealed that an additional 43% either died or had permanent neurological complications, the most prevalent and persistent of which was sensorineural hearing loss recorded in 22% of long term survivors. Post-meningitic children were found to have significantly lower intelligence quotients (92.3 +/- 13.9) than their sibling controls (100.7 +/- 10.2, P = 0.029). Features of the large serogroup A sulphonamide resistant MC epidemic (February-August 1988) in Khartoum are described. An estimated annual incidence of 1,679/100,000 was recorded at the peak of the epidemic. The highest attack rate was in young children less than 5 years, as in many other African countries; nevertheless, a high morbidity was observed in adults (31% of the cases greater than or equal to 20 years). The clinical features, mortality (6.3%) and short term sequelae in Sudanese children were generally within the framework described for MC disease elsewhere. Detailed analysis of MC isolates from Sudan and Sweden by characterizing their electrophoretic enzyme types, DNA restriction endonuclease pattern and outer membrane proteins, revealed that serogroup A MC clone III-1 was responsible of The Sudan epidemic in 1988 and has been the dominant serogroup A organism in Sweden since 1973. The Sudanese strains isolated prior to the epidemic (1985) were clone IV-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In this nationwide population-based cohort study using national Danish registries, in the period 1980-2008, our aim was to study employment and receipt of disability pension after central nervous system infections. All patients diagnosed between 20 and 55 years of age with meningococcal (n = 451), pneumococcal (n = 553), or viral (n = 1,433) meningitis or with herpes simplex encephalitis (n = 115), who were alive 1 year after diagnosis, were identified. Comparison cohorts were drawn from the general population, and their members were individually matched on age and sex to patients. Five years after diagnosis, the differences in probability of being employed as a former patient with pneumococcal meningitis or herpes simplex encephalitis versus being a member of the comparison cohorts were -19.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): -24.7, -15.1) and -21.1% (95% CI: -33.0, -9.3), respectively, and the corresponding differences in probability of receiving disability pension were 20.2% (95% CI: 13.7, 26.7) and 16.2% (95% CI: 6.2, 26.3). The differences in probability of being employed or receiving disability pension in former meningococcal or viral meningitis patients versus members of the comparison cohorts were small. In conclusion, pneumococcal meningitis and herpes simplex encephalitis were associated with substantially decreased employment and increased need for disability pension. These associations did not seem to apply to meningococcal meningitis or viral meningitis.
A survey of the children at the Robarts School for the Deaf was performed in order to determine the etiology of hearing loss, the reading ability as related to the degree of hearing loss, and the incidence of middle ear disease. The largest category for etiology was idiopathic at 31%, followed by hereditary at 22.5%, and maternal rubella at 19%. The incidence of serous otitis media was found to be 11%.
Indications for auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been widened from patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) to paediatric patients with congenital cochlear malformations, cochlear nerve hypoplasia/aplasia, or cochlear ossification after meningitis. We present four ABI surgeries performed in children at Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden since 2009.
Three children were implanted with implants from Cochlear Ltd. (Lane Cove, Australia) and one child with an implant from MedEl GMBH (Innsbruck, Austria). A boy with Goldenhar syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 2 years (patient 1). Another boy with CHARGE syndrome was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI541 at age 2.5 years (patient 2). Another boy with post-ossification meningitis was implanted with a Cochlear Nucleus ABI24M at age 4 years (patient 3). A girl with cochlear aplasia was implanted with a MedEl Synchrony ABI at age 3 years (patient 4). In patients 1, 2, and 3, the trans-labyrinthine approach was used, and in patient 4 the retro-sigmoid approach was used.
Three of the four children benefited from their ABIs and use it full time. Two of the full time users had categories of auditory performance (CAP) score of 4 at their last follow up visit (6 and 2.5 years postoperative) which means they can discriminate consistently any combination of two of Ling's sounds. One child has not been fully evaluated yet, but is a full time user and had CAP 2 (responds to speech sounds) after 3 months of ABI use. No severe side or unpleasant stimulation effects have been observed so far. There was one case of immediate electrode migration and one case of implant device failure after 6.5 years.
ABI should be considered as an option in the rehabilitation of children with similar diagnoses.
In a retrospective study of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis in a defined region of western Sweden 1975-1986, 231 cases were identified. The incidence was 2.8/1000 live births. The case-fatality rate was 15%. thirty-three patients had meningitis. Only 55 patients (24%) had no known risk factors. Preterm delivery was a most important risk factor for both morbidity and mortality. The most common causative organisms were group B streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic Gram-negative rods, together isolated from 82% of the patients. The cases were approximately equally divided between very early, early and late onset infections. Group B streptococci were over-represented in very early onset infections in all birthweight groups and aerobic Gram-negative rods were the most common isolates from low birthweight infants with late onset infections. However, group B streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative rods were found in all birthweight and gestational age groups. Thus, initial antimicrobial therapy must be equally broad in all neonates with suspected septicaemia.
All types of central nervous system (CNS) infections were investigated in a 1966 birth cohort of 12,000 children from Northern Finland followed up from birth to the age of 14. 174 CNS infections occurred in 167 children, 110 boys and 64 girls. The annual incidence of bacterial CNS infections was 36.3/100,000 and that of viral infections 688.0/100 000. It is concluded that bacterial CNS infections were recorded very fully but only 2/3 of the viral infections could be traced, even though the more severe cases were quite well documented. 8/55 children (14.5%) with bacterial meningitis died; the corresponding figure for viral encephalitis and meningitis (excluding mumps) was 3/67 (4.5%). 17/55 (30.9%) developed mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral palsy or hearing defect or some combination of these after bacterial CNS infection, and 9 (8.1%) after viral infection. The difference with respect to the children who had not experienced CNS infection was statistically significant only for the bacterial infection cases. CNS infections explained 7.6% of all deaths from 28 days to 14 years, 3% of the handicapping cases of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and epilepsy or some combination of these, and 6.6% of the hearing defects.