Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls.
The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design.
The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months) and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use.
Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.
Cites: Dev Psychol. 2000 Mar;36(2):180-910749075
Cites: Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;44(9):774-8320815663
Cites: Dev Psychol. 2001 Sep;37(5):608-1911552757
Cites: Ann Hum Biol. 2001 Nov-Dec;28(6):634-4811726040
The aim of our study was to explore whether gender dysphoria in adolescent girls is associated with early pubertal timing.
We compared menarcheal timing among 52 adolescent girl-to-boy sex reassignment (SR) applicants with that of 644 adolescent girls who participated in an adolescent population mental health survey.
Of the population girls, 21% presented with early (=11 years), 61% with normative (12-13 years) and 19% with late (=14 years) menarcheal timing; among the SR applicants, 42% presented with early, 46% with normative and 12% with late menarcheal timing (p?=?0.003). The odds ratio for SR applicant girls to have early menarcheal timing was 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 5.7), controlling for age and family structure.
Like emotional and behavioural disorders, gender dysphoria in adolescence is associated in girls with early pubertal timing. The finding is discussed in the light of literature related to pubertal maturation and mental health.
The relation between women's timing of menarche and father absence was examined in a national probability sample of Great Britain (NATSAL 2000; N>5000). Current body mass index (as a proxy for childhood weight) was examined as a potential mediator of this relationship, along with the potential moderating role that siblings (e.g. number of older brothers) had on this relationship. As in a number of previous studies, an absent father (but not an absent mother) during childhood predicted an earlier age of puberty (i.e. an early menarche). There was no evidence that weight mediated this relationship or that siblings moderated it. Both a lower body mass index and more siblings (e.g. more younger sisters and brothers) were independent predictors of a later timing of puberty. The results confirm that certain psychosocial factors (i.e. father absence; presence of siblings) may affect the timing of sexual maturation in adolescent girls.
In the present study, between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. The role of personality factors and peer relationships in that association was investigated, and little support was found for their involvement. Novel within-family analyses replicating associations of substance use with pubertal timing in contrasts of twin sisters selected for extreme discordance for age at menarche are reported. Within-family replications demonstrated that the association of pubertal timing with substance use cannot be explained solely by between-family confounds. Within-family analyses demonstrated contextual modulation of the influence of pubertal timing: Its impact on drinking frequency is apparent only among girls in urban settings. Sibling comparisons illustrate a promising analytic tool for studying diverse developmental outcomes.
Reproductive events have a significant impact on women's lives. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age at menarche and current menstrual irregularity on psychological well-being and psychopathology. Data were collected in the context of the Finnish population-based Health 2000 study with self-administered questionnaires, a home interview, and a clinical health examination. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-21), the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) were used to assess psychopathology. The relationships between age at menarche and current menstrual flow irregularity vs. BDI-21 and GHQ-12 scores and M-CIDI diagnoses were studied among 4,391 women aged 30 years and over. Negative, nonsignificant associations were found between age at menarche and BDI-21 and GHQ-12 scores. Young age at menarche was associated with increased risks of any recent mental disorder (OR?=?0.894, p?
Relationships between menarche and sexual, contraceptive, and reproductive life events were investigated by structured interviews of 585 Danish women, aged 15-54 years. Data were analyzed by multivariate test statistics. The trend toward an earlier menarche was confirmed. No association was found between menarche and social class. Women with early menarche had an earlier coital debut. After correction for coital debut, no association was observed between menarche and coital frequency, number of sexual partners, or use of oral contraceptives. Menarche was not associated with number of births, spontaneous or induced abortions, or frequency of ectopic pregnancies. The results suggest that the predictive value of the menarche for sexual and contraceptive life events is conditioned primarily by the association between menarche and coital debut.