to evaluate the association between 2D:4D finger length ratios (representing the prenatal environment, i.e., early androgen exposure) and reproductive indices, such as age at menarche, menopausal age, and length of reproductive period.
Retrospective data on age at menarche and menopausal age as well as x-rays of both hands were obtained from 674 Chuvashian women aged 18-70 years (mean 46.32?±?15.42). Finger and metacarpal length ratios as well as visual classification of finger ratio types, were estimated from the x-rays.
We found that a low 2D:4D ratio (radiologically evaluated), a masculine 2D:4D ratio type (visually evaluated), and a putative bioassay for prenatal androgen exposure, were associated with a later menarche and a shorter reproductive period. No association was found with menopausal age.
BACKGROUND: We hypothesize that premenopausal endogenous estradiol may be associated with age at menarche and adult overweight and obesity, potentially contributing to breast cancer risk. METHODS: We assessed age at menarche by questionnaire among 204 healthy Norwegian women, aged 25-35 years. Measures of body composition included body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat percentage dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA). Daily salivary 17-beta-estradiol (E(2)) concentrations were collected throughout one entire menstrual cycle and assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Linear regression analyses and linear mixed models for repeated measures were used and potential confounding factors and effect modifiers were tested. RESULTS: Among women with an early age at menarche (
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal development and peripheral concentrations of gonadotrophins and sex hormones in children with shunted hydrocephalus compared with healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN: 114 patients (52 females, 62 males) and 73 healthy controls (35 females, 38 males) aged 5 to 20 years were analysed for stage of puberty, age at menarche, testicular volume, basal serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone and oestradiol concentrations, and free androgen index. RESULTS: Male gonadal and male and female pubic hair development occurred significantly earlier in the patients than in the controls. The mean age at menarche was significantly lower in the female patients than in their controls (11.7 v 13.2 years; p
The object of this investigation were the causes of the decrease of the frequency of twin births during the last two decades. In Moscow this frequency decreased from 1,19% in 1956 to 0,7% in 1973. Among the births the proportion of first births was observed to increase, as well as the proportion of very young mothers. The effect of this process on the women characterized by a tendency to polyembryony was more conspicuous, than in the average on the population as a whole. During the last decades the process of acceleration of puberty was observed both in the mothers of twins and in all the women in general. However a somewhat later onset of first menstruations is characteristic of the women having a tendency to polyembryony-Hormonal changes taking place in the course of acceleration are apparently one of the causes of the decrease of the twin births frequency.
To describe changes in adolescent girls' sexual attitudes and relationships with boys between 1970 and 1996, particularly girls who had early onset of sexual intercourse. METHOD AND INSTRUMENT: The study includes two cohorts. The first is from the Swedish longitudinal research program, "Individual Development and Adaptation." This cohort included all eighth-grade girls (15-year-olds), 522 girls, in a mid-Swedish community in 1970. In 1996, the same instrument (Adjustment Screening Test) was administered to all eighth-grade girls (15-year-olds), 567 girls, in the same community. These girls make up the second cohort.
Girls were thinking and feeling similarly about sexual matters in 1970 and 1996. Furthermore, the same factors correlated with early sexual onset of intercourse in both cohorts, and the correlations were of about the same magnitudes. This suggests that sexuality has quite similar developmental implications in the lives of teenaged girls now as it had 25 years ago. There were, however, differences in the prevalence of opposite-sex relations. Compared with girls in 1970, girls in 1996 had had fewer sexual relationships and had postponed their sexual transition.
This study shows that perceptual, bodily, and behavioral maturation are positively related to each other. The girls with early onset of intercourse matured early both in 1970 and in 1996. They felt sexually more experienced than their age-mates, and they also aspired to be older.
Among people born at term, low birth weight is associated with early puberty. Early maturation may be on the pathway linking low birth weight with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Subjects born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW;
The average age at the menarche has decreased from the 1850s to the 1950s. It is controversial whether there has been a continued decrease since the 1950s. The object of this investigation is to illustrate whether this trend has continued into the 1980s. This study is based on the ages at the menarche as recalled by 908 girls aged 14-16 years in 40 schools in Odense. The information was obtained during intervals of differing lengths and consequently, the parameters of the distribution of the age at the menarche were estimated in a randomly grouped normal distribution. The average age at the menarche was found to be the same throughout the municipality (13.27 years; 95% confidence limit 13.20-13.35). The variations were found to be significantly differentiated by the type of school district. The variations were low in the suburbs and in the surrounding rural districts, higher in the inner city areas and highest among girls attending private schools. Compared with the results from other recent Danish studies, these findings suggest a halt in the decline of the average age at the menarche, which may be temporary.
Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls.
The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY). The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design.
The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months) and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use.
Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.
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