The aim of the present study was to prospectively examine risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) according to measured anthropometric factors, adjusted for exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), in a large population-based cohort in Norway. The Janus Cohort, including 292,851 Norwegians recruited 1972-2003, was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway and followed for CM through 2014. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of CM with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Restricted cubic splines were incorporated into the Cox models to assess possible non-linear relationships. All analyses were adjusted for attained age, indicators of UVR exposure, education, and smoking status. During a mean follow-up of 27 years, 3,000 incident CM cases were identified. In men, CM risk was positively associated with body mass index, body surface area (BSA), height and weight (all ptrends ?
ErratumIn: Int J Cancer. 2018 Apr 1;142(7):E3 PMID 29417601
We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the effects of birth order and family size on the risk of common cancers among offspring born over the period 1958-96. Some 1.38 million offspring up to age 55 years with 50.6 million person-years were included. Poisson regression analysis included age at diagnosis, birth cohort, socio-economic status and region of residence as other explanatory variables. The only significant associations were an increasing risk for breast cancer by birth order and a decreasing risk for melanoma by birth order and, particularly, by family size. When details of the women's own reproductive history were included in analysis, birth orders 5-17 showed a relative risk of 1.41. The effects on breast cancer may be mediated through increasing birth weight by birth order. For melanoma, socio-economic factors may be involved, such as limited affordability of sun tourism in large families. Testis cancer showed no significant effect and prostate cancer was excluded from analysis because of the small number of cases.
Development of malignant tumours in chronic burn wounds or scars is extremely rare, but a frequently reported complication. Most of these tumours are squamous cell carcinoma and, more occasionally, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma are reported. The interval between the initial burn and the diagnosis of the tumour is usually long; 20-30 years or more. A large number of case reports and small series of selected patients have been published. Only one epidemiological study has been performed recently, but it could not confirm any increased risk. We conducted a historical cohort study to assess the risk of cancer in Swedish patients with burn injuries. Using the national Inpatient Registry we identified 37,095 patients who had been hospitalized for burn injuries. This cohort was linked with the Swedish Cancer Registry for a virtually complete follow-up with regard to cancer. The mean follow-up time was 16.4 years (range >0-39). The risk of developing any form of cancer was slightly increased: standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.16) based on 2227 patients with cancer. However, squamous cell carcinoma: SIR 0.88 (95% CI 0.70-1.09) and malignant melanoma: SIR 0.88 (95% CI 0.68-1.12) did not occur more often than expected. Also, in a subgroup of 12,783 patients who were followed for 20-39 years, no increased risk of skin cancer could be detected. This study does not support any casual association between burn injuries and a later risk of skin cancer.
Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies.
Data for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates.
A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.52) and skin melanoma (SIR=1.62, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.23), while there was almost no excess in the older ages. By contrast, an increased risk, mainly in ages of 70 years and higher, was observed for non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR=1.40, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.76), multiple myeloma (SIR=1.69, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.51), adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR=1.90, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.62), and mesothelioma (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.77). By contrast with earlier studies, the incidence of testicular cancer was decreased (SIR=0.51, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.98).
Some of these associations have been observed previously, and potential exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and shift work involving disruption of circadian rhythms may partly explain these results.
Comment In: Occup Environ Med. 2014 Aug;71(8):525-624996680
AIMS: To determine the cancer incidence in Swedish cabin crew. METHODS: Cancer incidence of cabin crew at the Swedish Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) (2324 women and 632 men) employed from 1957 to 1994 was determined during 1961-96 from the Swedish National Cancer Register. The cancer incidence in cabin crew was compared with that of the general Swedish population by comparing observed and expected number of cases through standardised incidence ratios (SIR). A nested case-control study was performed, including cancer cases diagnosed after 1979 and four controls per case matched by gender, age, and calendar year. RESULTS: The SIR for cancer overall was 1.01 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.24) for women and 1.16 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.55) for men. Both men and women had an increased incidence of malignant melanoma of the skin (SIR 2.18 and 3.66 respectively) and men of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 4.42). Female cabin attendants had a non-significant increase of breast cancer (SIR 1.30; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.74). No clear associations were found between length of employment or cumulative block hours and cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Swedish cabin crew had an overall cancer incidence similar to that of the general population. An increased incidence of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer may be associated with exposure to UV radiation, either at work or outside work. An increased risk of breast cancer in female cabin crew is consistent with our results and may in part be due to differences in reproductive history.
Comment In: Occup Environ Med. 2003 Nov;60(11):805-614573708
OBJECTIVE: To examine unusual exposure opportunities to flight crews from chemicals, cosmic radiation, and electric and magnetic fields. METHODS: This project evaluated the incidence of cancers of the breast and other sites among Association of Flight Attendants (AFA) members residing in California. AFA membership files were matched to California's statewide cancer registry to identify a total of 129 newly diagnosed invasive cancers among AFA members with California residential histories between 1988 and 1995. RESULTS: Compared to the general population, female breast cancer incidence was over 30% higher than expected, and malignant melanoma incidence was roughly twice that expected. Both of these are cancers that are associated with higher socioeconomic status and have been suggestively associated with various sources of radiation. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the results from Nordic studies of cabin crews and a recent meta-analysis of prior studies, these data suggest that follow-up investigations should focus on the potential relative contribution of workplace exposures and lifestyle characteristics to the higher rates of disease for these two cancers.
Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Adult anthropometry influences MM development; however, associations between childhood body size and future melanomagenesis are largely unknown. We investigated whether height, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2), and body surface area (BSA) at ages 7-13 years and birth weight are associated with adult MM. Data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, containing annual height and weight measurements of 372,636 Danish children born in 1930-1989, were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression analyses were performed. During follow-up, 2,329 MM cases occurred. Height at ages 7-13 years was significantly associated with MM, even after BMI and BSA adjustments. No significant BMI-MM or BSA-MM associations were detected when adjusting for height. Children who were persistently tall at both age 7 years and age 13 years had a significantly increased MM risk compared with children who grew taller between those ages. Birth weight was positively associated with MM. We conclude that associations between body size and MM originate early in life and are driven largely by height and birth weight, without any comparable influence of BMI or BSA. Melanoma transformation is unlikely to be due to height per se; however, height-regulating processes in childhood present new areas for mechanistic explorations of this disease.
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The authors sum up the results of clinical and genealogic examinations of 2460 patients with most prevalent tumors, i.e. gastric and mammary carcinomas, melanomas. The obtained values of segregation frequencies for these tumors have proved to be lower than the theoretically expected values for monogenic types of inheritance. A genetic and epidemiologic approach, employed in the tumors analysis, has demonstrated the multifactorial nature of these tumors: the contribution of the genetic factors in mammary carcinoma has made up 52%, in gastric carcinoma 22% for male and 41.1% for female subjects, with the X-chromosome-linked genetic components making up 19%. The studies have shown the possibility of genetic heterogeneity of the tumor forms, identically localized. Basing on these data, the authors have plotted 'repeated risk tables' to assess the potentiality of new cases of the disease in the patients' families; such tables may be useful for practical medicogenetic counselling.
Common naevi, dysplastic naevi (DN) and other phenotypic features were evaluated as melanoma risk factors in a Swedish case-control study. One-hundred and twenty-one prevalent melanoma cases and 378 randomly selected controls participated. The mean total body naevus count was 115 in the cases and 67 in the controls. Fifty-six per cent of the cases and 18% of the controls had clinical DN. The corresponding figures for histologically diagnosed DN were 40% and 8% respectively. Clinical DN was as good as histologically diagnosed DN in identifying individuals at risk for melanoma. Subjects with sun-sensitive skin, greater than or equal to 150 naevi and presence of DN have 50 times higher melanoma risk than those without these characteristics.