References to either indigenous uses or the results of controlled assays are numerous for species of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae). These citations have been arranged by subgenus, section, subsection and species and will be published in four parts, including (Part IV) analysis, discussion and conclusions concerning apparent clustering of some uses or effects within taxa. This paper (Part II) covers the subgenus Phyllanthus.
The fungal flora of the forest zone of West Siberia contains an average number of species. The Khanty living there consume only half a score of them. Several fungi are used for different purposes. The article presents data on the use of Amanita muscaria, Fomes fomentarius, Inonotus obliquus, Phellinus nigricans and the puff-ball in folk medicine.
This paper reviews anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology to advance a critical and biobehavioral perspective for the construction of primary data in the light of indigenous paradigms of health and therapeutics. The unique contributions of anthropology are the conceptual and practical tools that allow one to develop the ethnography of plant use in sufficient depth to correlate with laboratory and clinical investigations of plant constituents and activities. This serves an ethnopharmacology that links bioscientific research to traditional empirical knowledge. Specific methods discussed include: key respondents, participant observation, focus groups, structured and unstructured interviews, survey instruments and questionnaires, lexical and semantic studies, and discourse and content analysis. The accommodation of rapid ethnographic techniques for ethnopharmacologic research is described, and several problem orientations based on assessments of efficacy are offered.