The color assessment ability of a multispectral vision system is investigated by a comparison study with color measurements from a traditional colorimeter. The experiment involves fresh and processed meat samples. Meat is a complex material; heterogeneous with varying scattering and reflectance properties, so several factors can influence the instrumental assessment of meat color. In order to assess whether two methods are equivalent, the variation due to these factors must be taken into account. A statistical analysis was conducted and showed that on a calibration sheet the two instruments are equally capable of measuring color. Moreover the vision system provides a more color rich assessment of fresh meat samples with a glossier surface, than the colorimeter. Careful studies of the different sources of variation enable an assessment of the order of magnitude of the variability between methods accounting for other sources of variation leading to the conclusion that color assessment using a multispectral vision system is superior to traditional colorimeter assessments.
Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20?g and 16?g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90?ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1?ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29?µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value =17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern.
Samples of cow milk, pork, beef eggs, rainbow trout, flours and vegetables were analysed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Daily dietary intake of PCDD/Fs as toxic equivalent (I-TEq) and PCBs (PCB-TEq) was assessed using food consumption data from a 24-h dietary recall study for 2862 Finnish adults. The calculated intake of PCDD/F was 46 pg I-TEq day(-1). The current level was about half of the earlier estimation of intake in Finland made in 1992. The assessed PCB intake was 53 pg PCB-TEq day(-1). Thus, the total intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs was 100 pg TEqday(-1) (1.3pg TEqkg(-1) b.w. day(-1)), which is within the range of tolerable daily intake (TDI) proposed by the WHO (1-4pg TEqkg(-1) b.w. day(-1)).
A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was assembled and analysed for its polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PBDE levels, an average daily dietary intake estimate of PBDEs was calculated. Of all foods analysed, fish had the highest average sum of PBDE levels (BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and 183; 460 pg/g ww), followed by dairy products and eggs (260 pg/g ww), fast food (86 pg/g ww) and meat products (70 pg/g ww). One fresh salmon filet had the highest total concentration of PBDEs (2360 pg/g ww), whereas levels in steak and chicken breast were the lowest of all foods analysed. BDE 209 was never found above LOQ in any food. PBDE intake calculations were based on the average daily food consumption in Belgium and were estimated between 23 and 48 ng/day of total PBDEs (lower and upper bound). This value is in accordance with what was previously reported for diets from geographical distinct areas, such as Canada, Finland, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Although it is only a minor constituent of the Belgian diet, fish is the major contributor to the total daily PBDE-intake (around 40%) due to the high PBDE levels in this type of food. Although low contaminated, meat products account for around 30% of the total dietary intake of PBDEs. Dairy products and eggs contribute to a lesser degree (less than 30%).
All of 86 food routinely examined for potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria were found to harbour one or more coliform species. None of the strains isolated produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) or showed invasive properties. The suckling mouse test indicated that one strain of Escherichia coli produced heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Twelve incidents of suspected food poisoning were also investigated. In two of them the foods examined contained LT-producing strains of E. coli and in two there were LT-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The counts of viable enterotoxigenic micro-organisms in these foods were 3000-30,000 E. coli/g and 50,000 to 1 million K. pneumoniae/g. The dominant symptom in all the incidents was watery diarrhoea. These seem to be the first reported cases of foodborne enterotoxigenic enteric bacteria in Europe. Though enterotoxigenic E. coli and related gram-negative enterotoxin-producing species are rare in correctly handled food in Sweden, these micro-organisms should be searched for when outbreaks of food poisoning are investigated.
The skeletal muscle protein troponin I (TnI) has been characterized as a potential thermally stable and species-specific biomarker of mammalian muscle tissues in raw meat and meat products. This study proposed a technique for the quantification of TnI comprising protein extraction and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The technique is characterized by a TnI detection limit of 4.8 ng/ml with quantifiable concentrations ranging from 8.7 to 52 ng/ml. The method was shown to be suitable for detection of TnI in mammalian (beef, pork, lamb, and horse) meat but not in poultry (chicken, turkey, and duck) meat. In particular, the TnI content in beef was 0.40 3 ± 0.058 mg/g of wet tissue. The TnI estimations obtained for the pork and beef samples using ELISA were comparable to the proteomic analysis results. Thus, the quantitative study of TnI can be a convenient way to assess the mammalian muscle tissue content of various meat products.
This study examines the intake of nitrate and nitrite in Swedish children. Daily intake estimates were based on a nationwide food consumption survey (4-day food diary) and nitrite/nitrate content in various foodstuffs. The mean intake of nitrite from cured meat among 2259 children studied was 0.013, 0.010 and 0.007 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in age groups 4, 8-9 and 11-12 years, respectively. Among these age groups, three individuals (0.1% of the studied children) exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.07 mg nitrite kg(-1) body weight day(-1). The mean intake of nitrate from vegetables, fruit, cured meat and water was 0.84, 0.68 and 0.45 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged 4, 8-9 and 11-12 years, respectively. No individual exceeded the ADI of 3.7 mg nitrate kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, when the total nitrite intake was estimated, including an estimated 5% endogenous conversion of nitrate to nitrite, approximately 12% of the 4-year-old children exceeded the nitrite ADI. Thus, the intake of nitrite in Swedish children may be a concern for young age groups when endogenous nitrite conversion is included in the intake estimates.
Proteolytic activity and physico-chemical characteristics were studied for Norwegian dry-cured ham at four different times of processing: raw hams, post-salted hams (3 months of processing), hams selected in the middle of the production (12 months of processing) and hams at the end of the processing (24 months). Cathepsin H activity decreased until negligible values after 3 months of processing, whereas cathepsins B and B+L were inactive at 12 months. AAP was the most active aminopeptidase whereas RAP and MAP were active just during the first 12 months of processing. Proteolysis index reached a value of 4.56?1.03 % with non-significant differences between 12 and 24 months of ripening. Peptide identification by LC-MS/MS was done and two peptides (GVEEPPKGHKGNKK and QAISNNKDQGSY) showing a linear response with the time of processing were found. Unfreezable water content and glass transition temperature were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique with non-significant differences in the temperature of glass transition for 12 and 24 months of processing.
In a market basket study made at the National Food Agency in Sweden, in which the most common consumed foodstuffs are sampled, the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and PAH4 (B(a)P, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) were analysed. To this data, results on B(a)P and PAH4 levels originating from a home-barbecue-study on sausages and loin of pork were added. The calculated total mean intake of B(a)P and PAH4 was 50?ng/person and day 276?ng/person and day, respectively. Sugar and sweets, cereal products, meat, and dairy products contributed most to the total intake. In case of PAH concentrations below LOD, 0.03??g/kg, ? LOD was used in the intake calculations. The highest mean level of B(a)P and PAH4 were found in the barbecued products, but since the estimated consumption in Sweden is low, the contribution to the total food intake is almost negligible, about 2%. The calculated B(a)P levels in food has decreased during the last 10 years and indicates a low cancer risk for the Swedish population.