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Absence of transmission of the d9 measles virus--Region of the Americas, November 2002-March 2003.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature186090
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Mar 21;52(11):228-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-21-2003
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Mar 21;52(11):228-9
Date
Mar-21-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Americas - epidemiology
Humans
Immunization Programs
Measles - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine - administration & dosage
Measles virus - genetics
Abstract
In 1994, countries of the Region of the Americas set a goal of interrupting indigenous measles transmission, and the regional plan of action for achieving this goal was begun in 1996. As of March 16, 2003, the Region of the Americas has been free for 17 weeks from known circulation of the d9 measles virus, the strain responsible for the only large outbreak of measles in the region during 2002 (Figure).
PubMed ID
12665116 View in PubMed
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Antibody-induced restriction of viral gene expression in measles encephalitis in rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57791
Source
J Virol. 1990 Feb;64(2):706-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1990
Author
U G Liebert
S. Schneider-Schaulies
K. Baczko
V. ter Meulen
Author Affiliation
Institut für Virologie und Immunbiologie, Universität Würzburg, Federal Republic of Germany.
Source
J Virol. 1990 Feb;64(2):706-13
Date
Feb-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Antibodies, Monoclonal - immunology
Antibody formation
Blotting, Northern
Brain - microbiology
Encephalitis - immunology - microbiology
Female
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Genes, Viral
Measles - immunology
Measles virus - genetics - immunology - physiology
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Pregnancy
RNA Probes
RNA, Messenger - analysis - genetics
RNA, Viral - isolation & purification
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred Lew
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Spinal Cord - microbiology
Viral Structural Proteins - immunology
Virus Replication
Abstract
After infection with the neurotropic CAM/RBH measles virus (MV) strain, newborn Lewis rats succumb to an acute necrotizing encephalopathy. Passive transfer of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against MV hemagglutinin prevented this disease process. Instead, either an antibody-induced acute or subacute measles encephalitis developed after a prolonged incubation period with a restricted expression of MV structural proteins. The molecular biological analysis of MV gene expression in brain tissue of rats treated with MV-neutralizing antibodies revealed a transcriptional restriction of viral mRNAs, particularly for the envelope proteins, leading to a steep expression gradient. Based on in situ hybridization, it was concluded that the efficiency of transcription of viral genes at the single-cell level is reduced compared with that of controls. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies directed against other MV structural proteins proved to be ineffective. Similar results were obtained in MV-infected weanling Brown Norway rats. These rats developed a clinically silent encephalitis in the presence of high titers of neutralizing antibodies. In such animals, a pronounced attenuation of the viral gene transcription was observed. These findings indicated that neutralizing antibodies directed against a restricted set of specific antigenic sites on the viral hemagglutinin protein expressed on cell membranes exert a modulating effect on the viral gene expression at the level of transcription. This phenomenon contributes to the switch from the acute cytopathic effect to a persistent infection in the central nervous system.
PubMed ID
2296081 View in PubMed
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The benefit of molecular characterization during a measles upsurge in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162468
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Aug 14;25(33):6232-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-14-2007
Author
Mark Muscat
Lasse Vinner
Annette Hartvig Christiansen
Steffen Glismann
Blenda Elisabeth Böttiger
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institut, Artillerivej 5, DK-2300 Copenhagen S, Denmark. mmc@ssi.dk
Source
Vaccine. 2007 Aug 14;25(33):6232-6
Date
Aug-14-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Genotype
Humans
Measles - epidemiology - virology
Measles virus - genetics
Molecular Epidemiology
Phylogeny
RNA, Viral - genetics
Abstract
Molecular characterization of measles virus was part of the epidemiological investigation of 27 measles cases reported in Denmark in 2006. RT-PCR detected measles virus RNA from various types of clinical specimens in 24 cases. Virus genotypes were determined by sequencing the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Four different genotypes, B3, D4, D5 and D9 were identified including two variants of the D4 genotype. In combination with the epidemiological data four clusters of measles cases and three sporadic cases were revealed. Our study showed that measles in Denmark resulted from imported measles virus strains. The limited duration and short chain of transmission of the identified clusters ascertain that the interruption of measles virus circulation is being sustained. However, measles transmission still has a potential to occur. To minimise the development of pools of susceptible individuals high (>/=95%) routine vaccination coverage with two doses of measles-containing vaccine needs to be attained. Molecular epidemiological studies have proved to be both a useful and a necessary component of an enhanced surveillance system required in the measles elimination phase.
Notes
Erratum In: Vaccine. 2008 Nov 25;26(50):6445-6
PubMed ID
17629377 View in PubMed
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Effective control measures limited measles outbreak after extensive nosocomial exposures in January-February 2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92233
Source
Euro Surveill. 2008 Jul 24;13(30)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-24-2008
Author
Follin P.
Dotevall L.
Jertborn M.
Khalid Y.
Liljeqvist J A
Muntz S.
Qvarfordt I.
Söderström A.
Wiman A.
Ahrén C.
Osterberg P.
Johansen K.
Author Affiliation
Department of Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. per.follin@vgregion.se
Source
Euro Surveill. 2008 Jul 24;13(30)
Date
Jul-24-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ambulatory Care Facilities
Child
Cross Infection - prevention & control - virology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Measles - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control - transmission
Measles virus - genetics - isolation & purification
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine - therapeutic use
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In January-February 2008, one imported case of measles initiated a series of exposures with around 380 nosocomial secondary contacts. Susceptible individuals were traced early and control measures were initiated that managed to limit the consequences considerably. Only four secondary cases were identified by the end of March. This minor outbreak illustrates the importance and efficiency of early control measures as well as the fact that the risk of measles outbreaks still exists in a country that has high measles, mumps, rubella vaccination coverage among children.
PubMed ID
18761910 View in PubMed
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The elimination of indigenous measles transmission in England and Wales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185595
Source
J Infect Dis. 2003 May 15;187 Suppl 1:S198-207
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2003
Author
Mary E Ramsay
Li Jin
Joanne White
Pam Litton
Bernard Cohen
David Brown
Author Affiliation
Immunisation Division, Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom. mramsay@phls.org.uk
Source
J Infect Dis. 2003 May 15;187 Suppl 1:S198-207
Date
May-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
DNA, Viral - chemistry - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
England - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Immunization Programs - methods - standards
Incidence
Infant
Male
Measles - blood - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine - administration & dosage
Measles virus - genetics - isolation & purification
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Saliva - virology
Wales - epidemiology
Abstract
Following a school-based measles-rubella vaccination campaign in November 1994, enhanced surveillance of measles, including IgM antibody testing of oral fluid from clinically diagnosed case-patients, was introduced in England and Wales. Between 1995 and 2001, 665 cases of measles were confirmed, including 371 (56%) confirmed only by IgM detection in oral fluid. Two hundred thirty-nine cases (36%) were sporadic and 426 (64%) were associated with 61 clusters. Fifty-four (23%) of the 239 sporadic cases and 26 (43%) of the 61 clusters were associated with a probable or possible importation of infection from overseas, and a wide variety of genotypes were identified in each calendar year. The effective reproduction number for measles over the period was estimated to be below 0.7. These data suggest that most measles in the UK is acquired following limited transmission from an imported infection, and they confirm that measles elimination has been achieved and sustained over this period.
PubMed ID
12721914 View in PubMed
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Evidence of recombination among early-vaccination era measles virus strains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172526
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Mikkel H Schierup
Carl H Mordhorst
Claude P Muller
Laurids S Christensen
Author Affiliation
Bioinformatics Research Center (BiRC), University of Aarhus, Hoegh Guldbergs Gade 10, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. mheide@birc.au.dk
Source
BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:52
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Base Sequence
Disease Outbreaks
Evolution, Molecular
Genetics, Population
Genome, Viral
Hemagglutinins, Viral - genetics
Humans
Linkage Disequilibrium
Measles - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine
Measles virus - genetics
Models, Genetic
Models, Theoretical
Molecular Epidemiology
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
Recombination, Genetic
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Vaccines, Attenuated
Abstract
The advent of live-attenuated vaccines against measles virus during the 1960'ies changed the circulation dynamics of the virus. Earlier the virus was indigenous to countries worldwide, but now it is mediated by a limited number of evolutionary lineages causing sporadic outbreaks/epidemics of measles or circulating in geographically restricted endemic areas of Africa, Asia and Europe. We expect that the evolutionary dynamics of measles virus has changed from a situation where a variety of genomic variants co-circulates in an epidemic with relatively high probabilities of co-infection of the individual to a situation where a co-infection with strains from evolutionary different lineages is unlikely.
We performed an analysis of the partial sequences of the hemagglutinin gene of 18 measles virus strains collected in Denmark between 1965 and 1983 where vaccination was first initiated in 1987. The results were compared with those obtained with strains collected from other parts of the world after the initiation of vaccination in the given place. Intergenomic recombination among pre-/early-vaccination strains is suggested by 1) estimations of linkage disequilibrium between informative sites, 2) the decay of linkage disequilibrium with distance between informative sites and 3) a comparison of the expected number of homoplasies to the number of apparent homoplasies in the most parsimonious tree. No significant evidence of recombination could be demonstrated among strains circulating at present.
We provide evidence that recombination can occur in measles virus and that it has had a detectable impact on sequence evolution of pre-vaccination samples. We were not able to detect recombination from present-day sequence surveys. We believe that the decreased rate of visible recombination may be explained by changed dynamics, since divergent strains do not meet very often in current epidemics that are often spawned by a single sequence type. Signs of pre-vaccination recombination events in the present-day sequences are not strong enough to be detectable.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16209713 View in PubMed
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From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Transmission of measles among a highly vaccinated school population--Anchorage, Alaska, 1998.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33504
Source
JAMA. 1999 Jan 27;281(4):315-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-27-1999

Genetic characterization of wild type measles virus isolated in Croatia during the 2003-2004 outbreak.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176956
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Feb;75(2):307-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Dubravko Forcic
J. Ivancic
M. Baricevic
V. Mahovlic
G. Tesovic
D. Bozinovic
I. Gjenero Margan
R. Mazuran
Author Affiliation
Department of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Immunology, Inc., Zagreb, Croatia. dforcic@imz.br
Source
J Med Virol. 2005 Feb;75(2):307-12
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Croatia - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks
Genes, Viral
Genotype
Humans
Measles - epidemiology
Measles virus - genetics - immunology
Phylogeny
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Viral Proteins - chemistry - genetics
Abstract
Viral epidemiology is determined by the movement of infected people within and between geographical areas. The genetic characterization of wild-type isolates combined with standard epidemiological methods may enable the identification of the source and transmission pathways and permit differentiation between indigenous and imported viruses. We investigated the genetic characteristics of the wild-type measles virus isolated in Croatia during a 2003-2004 outbreak. The results of this study indicate the presence of the D4 measles virus genotype in Europe. The isolated virus is closely related to virus isolates from the India-like subgroup of the D4 measles virus genotype. The virus responsible for this outbreak differs in the hemagglutinin gene sequence from other virus strains belonging to the D4 genotype. The hemagglutinin gene sequence also differs when compared to viruses from other genotypes that are known to circulate in Europe and from vaccine strains.
PubMed ID
15602739 View in PubMed
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Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network, January 2004-June 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature172158
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Nov 4;54(43):1100-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-4-2005
Source
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005 Nov 4;54(43):1100-4
Date
Nov-4-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Genotype
Humans
Measles - epidemiology - prevention & control
Measles virus - genetics
Population Surveillance
Rubella - epidemiology - prevention & control
Rubella virus - genetics
World Health
World Health Organization
Abstract
Measles continues to be a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries and an outbreak threat in the majority of countries. In 2000, measles was considered the fifth leading cause of childhood mortality, and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately 777,000 measles-associated deaths occurred worldwide. In 2001, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed a 5-year strategic plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2003, to reduce measles mortality by 50% by 2005 (relative to 1999 estimates) and to achieve and maintain interruption of indigenous measles transmission in large geographic areas with established measles elimination goals. This plan included strengthening routine vaccination coverage, providing a second opportunity for measles immunization to children, improving measles case management, and improving surveillance with laboratory confirmation of suspected measles cases. To date, four of six WHO regions have established measles elimination targets: the Americas Region (AMR) by 2000, the European Region (EUR) by 2010, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) by 2010, and the Western Pacific Region (WPR) by 2012. The remaining two WHO regions, the African (AFR) and South East Asian (SEAR) regions, are continuing work toward the measles mortality reduction goal. Likewise, to reduce the burden of disease from congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), currently estimated at 100,000 cases per year worldwide, several countries have developed or continue to develop rubella control programs, and AMR and EUR have established regional rubella elimination and CRS reduction goals, respectively. Because improved global surveillance is essential for monitoring progress toward mortality reduction and elimination of these diseases, WHO established the Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet) in 2003 to promote case identification and confirmation. This report provides an update on the development of LabNet during January 2004-June 2005 and describes the geographic distribution of measles and rubella virus genotypes as of June 2005.
PubMed ID
16267497 View in PubMed
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Large outbreak of measles in a community with high vaccination coverage: implications for the vaccination schedule.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154951
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 1;47(9):1143-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2008
Author
Angela Domínguez
Nuria Torner
Irene Barrabeig
Ariadna Rovira
Cristina Rius
Joan Cayla
Elsa Plasencia
Sofia Minguell
M Rosa Sala
Ana Martínez
Josep Costa
Mar Mosquera
Carmen Cabezas
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Barcelona, Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona, Spain. angela.dominguez@ub.edu
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 1;47(9):1143-9
Date
Nov-1-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Immunization Schedule
Infant
Male
Measles - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control
Measles Vaccine - administration & dosage
Measles virus - genetics - isolation & purification
Middle Aged
Spain - epidemiology
Time Factors
Vaccination
Abstract
Attempts to eliminate measles from a country or region may be disrupted by an imported case that affects indigenous persons. The objective of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a measles outbreak in Catalonia, Spain, in 2006.
Data on cases of measles reported to the Department of Health, Generalitat of Catalonia, during the period 28 August 2006 through 8 July 2007 were collected. Suspected cases were confirmed by determination of measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies and/or detection of virus genome. Incidences were calculated using the estimated population of Catalonia for 2006, and 95% confidence intervals were determined assuming a Poisson distribution. The association between proportions was determined using the chi(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at alpha = .05.
A total of 381 cases were confirmed, for an incidence of 6.6 cases per 100,000 persons. A total of 89.5% of cases occurred in nonvaccinated persons, mainly those aged
Notes
Comment In: Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 1;48(5):685-6; author reply 68619191659
PubMed ID
18823269 View in PubMed
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20 records – page 1 of 2.