Observations over the measles epidemic process in Leningrad showed that the sporadic morbidity level reached in 1974--4.1 per 100 000 residents; however periodic elevation and decline of morbidity and tis seasonal variations persisted. A rise of morbidity in 1972--1973, and by preliminary data--in 1975, occurred on account of the older age groups. There was revealed no dependence of the disease incidence among the persons vaccinated on the time lapse after their vaccination. Individual batches of live measles vaccine issued in 1963--1969 were not up to the standard, this serving as one of the cases of the occurence of group incidence of the infection in some foci.
With vaccination having become usual practice in health care, the incidence rate of measles in the Donetsk region has fallen 53.6-fold versus the prevaccination period. Bet there are also negative processes in the epidemiology of measles; of these, ever more frequent occurrence of the infection under consideration in persons of mature years is worthy of particular mention. The specific weight of juveniles and grown ups had come to be 68.65% in 1998 vs 6.3% in 1975. Since 1993 the case rate of measles is noted to be at its greatest among children less than two years of age and among adolescents, which fact can be referred to effects on the level of immunity of different factors including that of time of more than five years having elapsed since the previous immunization. The administration in 1997-1998 of vaccines to non-vaccinated persons and to unprotected ones permitted the incidence rate of measles to be kept down in juveniles and adults but the age brackets of sick persons were in fact the same as before the additional vaccinations done. The state of things discribed above attests to the need for development of cardinal measures to raise the level of individual and collective immunity in juveniles and adults.
An outbreak of measles that occurred in Anchorage, Alaska, in 1998 resulted in 33 diagnosed cases: 26 were laboratory confirmed and 7 were clinically confirmed. Twenty-nine (88%) of 33 cases occurred in individuals who had not been immunized with at least two measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations; 25 (76%) of 33 occurred in school-age children, 0 to 19 years of age. This study identifies the difference in the incidence of measles between the civilian school-age population, who was not completely immunized (two MMR vaccinations given at least 30 days apart), and the military dependent population who had been completely immunized. All cases occurred among civilians, and most (25 of 33 confirmed cases) were associated with school attendance. The authors conclude that a two-dose regimen of MMR vaccine is required to adequately protect individuals against measles.
The study of measles morbidity in Donetsk Province in 1960-1984 and the study of antimeasles immunity in different groups of the population have shown that the problem of the liquidation of measles cannot be solved by immunizing the population in a single administration of the vaccine. To enhance the effectiveness of the immunoprophylaxis of measles and its influence on the epidemic process, a number of problems must be solved with the aim to improve the quality of the vaccine, especially its thermal stability, to establish the possibility of shifting the beginning of immunization from 15-17 months to 12 months of age, to increase the coverage of children with immunization against measles by decreasing the number of groundless exemptions from immunization and by immunizing children in risk groups according to individual schedules and dosage, to carry out selectively the booster immunization of persons who have lost their postvaccinal immunity, as revealed by laboratory test, or in whom such loss may be supposed, to introduce the objective method (indirect hemagglutination test) for controlling the state of immunity among different groups of the population into laboratory practice at sanitary and epidemiological stations. As to the possibility of the liquidation of measles, the statement of this problem is correct, but for its solution a complex of additional prophylactic and epidemic-control measures should be taken.
Measles serum antibody levels were determined by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) test in 1,075 children in the age bracket of 5 to 17 years who received a single dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR II) vaccine at one year of age. Of these, 297 children (28%) had measles PRN titres
Measles is one of most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, practically all children in the long run contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s most countries of the world had incorporated measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 800,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year, half of them in Africa. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of August 2005, 3 years have elapsed since the detection of the last indigenous case in Venezuela in September 2002. This experience shows that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time and that global eradication is feasible if appropriate strategy is implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles will be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save the almost one million children that die every year to infection with the measles virus. It is not a dream to think that we will se a world free of measles by the year 2015.
Attempts to eliminate measles from a country or region may be disrupted by an imported case that affects indigenous persons. The objective of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a measles outbreak in Catalonia, Spain, in 2006.
Data on cases of measles reported to the Department of Health, Generalitat of Catalonia, during the period 28 August 2006 through 8 July 2007 were collected. Suspected cases were confirmed by determination of measles-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies and/or detection of virus genome. Incidences were calculated using the estimated population of Catalonia for 2006, and 95% confidence intervals were determined assuming a Poisson distribution. The association between proportions was determined using the chi(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at alpha = .05.
A total of 381 cases were confirmed, for an incidence of 6.6 cases per 100,000 persons. A total of 89.5% of cases occurred in nonvaccinated persons, mainly those aged
While the proportion of measles cases in vaccinees is expected to increase as vaccine coverage increases, such cases must be carefully investigated. The present study was conducted to examine possible contributions to vaccine failures (VFs) and to genetically characterize measles virus (MV) strains circulating in Novosibirsk, Russia during 2000-2005. Totally, 27 adult measles patients admitted to a regional hospital were prospectively enrolled in our study. Genetic characterization of the MV strains revealed circulation of genotypes A, D4 and D6 between 2000 and 2003 years; a genotype D6 MV was associated with the 2005 measles outbreak. Based on IgG avidity testing, half of the vaccinated patients demonstrated evidence of secondary vaccine failure (SVF). Patients, representing both levels of vaccine failure in our study were characterized by the lack of protective titers of neutralizing antibodies against circulating MVs, despite high IgG levels in many cases and high IgG avidity in SVF cases.