The 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25-OHD) in maternal and cord blood of 192 mothers was determined at delivery from June to the end of November. Ninety-nine mothers had received a daily supplementation of 12.5 micrograms of vitamin D during pregnancy and this group had a significantly higher 25-OHD concentration both in maternal and in cord blood than in the corresponding non-supplemented group. A daily supplement of 2.5 micrograms of vitamin D was given to 63 of the mothers during lactation. Of these mothers 44 were still lactating after 6 months. The dietary vitamin D intake of 31 mothers was calculated. We found a significant correlation between the maternal serum 25-OHD concentration 16-18 weeks after delivery and the total vitamin D intake. The intake (5.5 micrograms/d, including supplementation) was lower than that recommended for lactating mothers which is 10 micrograms/d (Food and Nutrition Board, 1980).
The 131I activity was measured in 30 human fetal thyroids in Zagreb district after the Chernobyl accident. A model of radioiodine metabolism in the mother and human fetus which takes into account the age dependence of the uptake and retention of radioiodine in the fetal thyroid was developed. Having assessed that the total intake by the average mother was about 1330 Bq, a good correlation between calculated and measured fetal thyroid activities was found (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001). The fetal thyroid dose reached the maximum of 0.43 micro Gy/Bq intake at about the fifth month of gestation. It was concluded that the risk of having a child with a harmful trait due to 131I absorbed by the mother was negligible.
We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of (14)C-PhIP (2 microM) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72+/-0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of (14)C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90+/-0.08 at 6 h, p
To examine the conditions under which mothers would consent to alcohol and drug screening of their infants, and to identify predictors of screening consent.
A cross-sectional survey was administered in person by trained research assistants on the postpartum units of three hospitals in a large Canadian urban centre over four months. The survey was administered to 1509 mothers (78.4% of those eligible) who were fluent in English and had given birth within the preceding 48 hours.
Mothers indicated that they would consent to screening of their newborn (1369/1460, 93.8%), and thought all mothers should consent if infants at risk would be more likely to receive effective treatment (1440/1476, 97.6%). Respondents believed that they would consent to screening if they were provided the following information: what would happen if the infant sample was positive for prenatal exposure (1431/1476, 97%); who would have access to the information (1377/1476, 93.4%); how effective medical care would be for the child (1435/1476, 97.4%); and the likelihood that a baby with a positive screen would have a problem (1444/1476, 98.1%). Self-reported alcohol use did not decrease willingness to consent. In a multivariate model, belief that universal screening would not make women feel discriminated against was a significant predictor of consent (adjusted OR 5.9; 95% CI 3.3-10.6).
Mothers would support a universal newborn alcohol and drug screening program if there was evidence that screening could lead to effective treatment for the mother and baby, and if appropriate resources were available.