A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes may have its origins in the fetal period of life. Free radicals were implicated in the cause of type 1 diabetes. It was hypothesized that antioxidant nutrients could protect against type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether high maternal intake of selected dietary antioxidants during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child, defined as repeated positivity for islet cell antibodies plus >/=1 other antibody, overt type 1 diabetes, or both. DESIGN: The study was carried out as part of the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Project. The data comprised 4297 children with increased genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes, born at the University Hospital of Oulu or Tampere, Finland, between October 1997 and December 2002. The children were monitored for diabetes-associated autoantibodies from samples obtained at 3-12-mo intervals. Maternal antioxidant intake during pregnancy was assessed postnatally with a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about consumption of dietary supplements. RESULTS: Maternal intake of none of the studied antioxidant nutrients showed association with the risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child. The hazard ratios, indicating the change in risk per a 2-fold increase in the intake of each antioxidant, were nonsignificant and close to 1. CONCLUSION: High maternal intake of retinol, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, or manganese does not protect the child from development of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in early childhood.
Diet during pregnancy and lactation may have a role in the development of allergic diseases. There are few human studies on the topic, especially focusing on food allergies. We sought to study the associations between maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation and cow's milk allergy (CMA) in offspring.
A population-based birth cohort with human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes was recruited in Finland between 1997 and 2004 (n=6288). Maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation was assessed by a validated, 181-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Register-based information on diagnosed CMA was obtained from the Social Insurance Institution and completed with parental reports. The associations between maternal food consumption and CMA were assessed using logistic regression, comparing the highest and the lowest quarters to the middle half of consumption.
Consumption of milk products in the highest quarter during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of CMA in offspring (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.86; P
To investigate whether individual counselling on diet and physical activity during pregnancy can have positive effects on diet and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and prevent excessive gestational weight gain.
A controlled trial.
Six maternity clinics in primary health care in Finland. The clinics were selected into three intervention and three control clinics.
Of the 132 pregnant primiparas, recruited by 15 public health nurses (PHN), 105 completed the study.
The intervention included individual counselling on diet and LTPA during five routine visits to a PHN until 37 weeks' gestation; the controls received the standard maternity care.
The counselling did not affect the proportion of primiparas exceeding the weight gain recommendations or total LTPA when adjusted for confounders. The adjusted proportion of high-fibre bread of the total weekly amount of bread decreased more in the control group than in the intervention group (difference 11.8%-units, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-23.1, P=0.04). The adjusted intake of vegetables, fruit and berries increased by 0.8 portions/day (95% CI 0.3-1.4, P=0.004) and dietary fibre by 3.6 g/day (95% CI 1.0-6.1, P=0.007) more in the intervention group than in the control group. There were no high birth weight babies (>or=4000 g) in the intervention group, but eight (15%) of them in the control group (P=0.006).
The counselling helped pregnant women to maintain the proportion of high-fibre bread and to increase vegetable, fruit and fibre intakes, but was unable to prevent excessive gestational weight gain.
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations of selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with the intake of antioxidant nutrients and consumption of their main dietary sources among pregnant women. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study. Dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed by a self-administered FFQ one to three months after the delivery. SETTING: Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Project. SUBJECTS: Subjects comprised 3730 women (70.1 % of those invited) who entered the DIPP Nutrition Study after delivering a child at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes at the university hospitals in Oulu and Tampere, Finland, 1997-2002. RESULTS: All sociodemographic and lifestyle factors studied showed significant associations with antioxidant intake in multiple regression models adjusting for all other factors. Older and more educated women tended to have higher intake of most antioxidants. Parity was positively associated with retinol intake and inversely with vitamin C intake. Smokers had lower intakes of most antioxidants. Only the partner's education was positively associated with high intake of fruits, whereas own education was positively associated with berry consumption. Vegetable consumption was positively associated with partner's education except for women with academic education, who tended to have high vegetable consumption irrespective of partner's education. CONCLUSIONS: Young women, smokers and those with a low education are at risk for low antioxidant intake and non-optimal food choices during pregnancy.