Department of Paediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Primary Health Care, University of Tilburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Medical Genetics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Department of Teaching & Research Support, University of Groningen, The Netherlands Clinical & Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands Department of Paediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Department of Lab Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. DESIGN: MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. RESULTS: Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of
This study investigated whether large fluctuations in food availability during grandparents' early development influenced grandchildren's cardiovascular mortality. We reported earlier that changes in availability of food - from good to poor or from poor to good - during intrauterine development was followed by a double risk of sudden death as an adult, and that mortality rate can be associated with ancestors' childhood availability of food. We have now studied transgenerational responses (TGR) to sharp differences of harvest between two consecutive years' for ancestors of 317 people in Överkalix, Sweden.
The confidence intervals were very wide but we found a striking TGR. There was no response in cardiovascular mortality in the grandchild from sharp changes of early exposure, experienced by three of the four grandparents (maternal grandparents and paternal grandfathers). If, however, the paternal grandmother up to puberty lived through a sharp change in food supply from one year to next, her sons' daughters had an excess risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.05-6.92). Selection or learning and imitation are unlikely explanations. X-linked epigenetic inheritance via spermatozoa seemed to be plausible, with the transmission, limited to being through the father, possibly explained by the sex differences in meiosis.
The shock of change in food availability seems to give specific transgenerational responses.
To describe changes in consumption of different types of beverages from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy, and to examine associations with maternal age, educational level and BMI.
Cross-sectional design. Participants answered an FFQ at inclusion into a randomized controlled trial, the Fit for Delivery (FFD) trial, in median gestational week 15 (range: 9-20), reporting current consumption and in retrospect how often they drank the different beverages pre-pregnancy.
Eight local antenatal clinics in southern Norway from September 2009 to February 2013.
Five hundred and seventy-five healthy pregnant nulliparous women.
Pre-pregnancy, 27 % reported drinking alcohol at least once weekly, compared with none in early pregnancy (P
A healthy diet is important for pregnancy outcome and the current and future health of woman and child. The aims of the study were to explore the changes from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy in consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV), and to describe associations with maternal educational level, body mass index (BMI) and age.
Healthy nulliparous women were included in the Norwegian Fit for Delivery (NFFD) trial from September 2009 to February 2013, recruited from eight antenatal clinics in southern Norway. At inclusion, in median gestational week 15 (range 9-20), 575 participants answered a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) where they reported consumption of FV, both current intake and recollection of pre-pregnancy intake. Data were analysed using a linear mixed model.
The percentage of women consuming FV daily or more frequently in the following categories increased from pre-pregnancy to early pregnancy: vegetables on sandwiches (13 vs. 17%, p?
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Finland; Vasa Central Hospital, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland; Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
Programming is the phenomenon whereby the body's structures and functions are permanently set by nutrition and other influences during early development. There is increasing evidence that programming in utero initiates cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that susceptibility to developing chronic rheumatic heart disease on exposure to Streptococcus pyogenes is programmed.
We studied hospital admissions and deaths from chronic rheumatic heart disease in 20,431 people born in Helsinki, Finland, during 1924-1944. One hundred and one people, 56 men, and 45 women, had chronic rheumatic heart disease.
The disease was not associated with body or placental size at birth. It was, however, associated with a long umbilical cord so that the hazard ratio for the disease was 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.45, P?=?0.02) for every 10 cm increase in cord length. This association was present in people with mitral valve disease, hazard ratio 1.5 (1.20-1.89, P?
Vitamin D has been hypothesized to reduce risk of pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preterm delivery. However, many of these outcomes are rare and require a large sample size to study, representing a challenge for cohorts with a limited number of preserved samples. The aims of this study were to (1) identify predictors of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) among pregnant women in a subsample (N?=?1494) of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and (2) develop and validate a score predicting 25(OH)D-status in order to explore associations between vitamin D and maternal and offspring health outcomes in the DNBC. In our study sample, 42.3% of the population had deficient levels of vitamin D (
To construct a diet score for assessing degree of adherence to a healthy and environmentally friendly New Nordic Diet (NND) and to investigate its association with adequacy of gestational weight gain and fetal growth in a large prospective birth cohort.
Main exposure was NND adherence, categorized as low, medium or high adherence. Main outcomes were adequacy of gestational weight gain, described as inadequate, optimal or excessive according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines, and fetal growth, categorized as being small, appropriate or large for gestational age. Associations of NND adherence with gestational weight gain and fetal growth were estimated with multinomial logistic regression in crude and adjusted models.
Women (n 66 597) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Higher NND adherence implied higher energy and nutrient intakes, higher nutrient density and a healthier macronutrient distribution. Normal-weight women with high as compared with low NND adherence had lower adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·99; P=0·024). High as compared with low NND adherence was associated with reduced odds of the infant being born small for gestational age (OR=0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·99; P=0·025) and with higher odds of the baby being born large for gestational age (OR=1·07; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·15; P=0·048).
The NND score captures diet quality. Adherence to a regional diet including a large representation of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, potatoes, fish, game, milk and drinking water during pregnancy may facilitate optimal gestational weight gain in normal-weight women and improve fetal growth in general.
Early nutrition may programme blood lipid levels and thereby later cardiovascular health of children. The objective here was to evaluate the effects of maternal dietary counselling during pregnancy and breastfeeding on dietary intakes and blood lipid values in 1-4 year-old children. Further, the nutritional determinants of children's lipid profiles were assessed.
Mothers were randomised into dietary counselling or control groups at the first trimester of pregnancy. Their children were followed up clinically at 1, 2 and 4 years of age, by three-day food records and analyses of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apolipoproteins A-I and B as well as lipoprotein (a). In general, the mean intake of saturated fatty acids as a proportion of total energy intake (E%) was higher than the recommended, while the mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was low in children's diet. Over the first years, girls had higher concentration of non-HDL cholesterol than boys; 2.64 mmol/l (95% CI 2.54-2.74) vs. 2.49 (2.38-2.60); p = 0.038. Maternal dietary counselling was not reflected in the children's lipid values. Children's monounsaturated fatty acid intake (E%) correlated with apoA-I (p = 0.048) and, furthermore, there was a negative correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (E%) and apoB (p = 0.046).
Children's dietary fatty acid intake, but not maternal dietary counselling was shown to be related to blood apolipoproteins in children.
Nutrition in pregnancy may affect growth, development and health of the child in the short and long term. We aimed to assess diet and nutrient intake among pregnant women in the capital area and evaluate differences in dietary intake between women who were overweight/obese and normal weight before pregnancy.
Pregnant women aged 18-40 years (n=183) living in the capital area kept four day weighed food records to assess diet and nutrient intake in the 19th-24th week of pregnancy (n=98 with body mass index (BMI)