The purpose of the study was to explore the encounters with the health care system in Sweden of women from Somalia, Eritrea, and Sudan who have been genitally cut. A qualitative study was performed through interviews with 22 women originally from Somalia, Sudan, and Eritrea who were living in Sweden. The women experienced being different and vulnerable, suffering from being abandoned and mutilated, and they felt exposed in the encounter with the Swedish health care personnel and tried to adapt to a new cultural context. The results of this study indicate a need for more individualized, culturally adjusted care and support and a need for systematic education about female genital cutting for Swedish health care workers.
To explore a once successful rural maternity care program and the variables surrounding its closure.
Analysis of archived logbook data, reports, and communications with medical staff.
Bella Bella, a Heiltsuk First Nation community on British Columbia's central coast.
Every patient delivering at the Bella Bella hospital since 1928.
We extracted delivery rates, cesarean section rates, and local perinatal and maternal mortality rates from the hospital logbooks. In 2003, a consultant's report reviewed the viability of surgical and maternity care services in Bella Bella; this was also reviewed. Finally, several personal communications with past and present medical staff added to an understanding of the issues that initially sustained and, in the end, closed the local maternity care program.
Bella Bella had an intrapartum service with operative backup, and intervention and perinatal mortality rates were comparable to national data. There was only 1 maternal death in 80 years of intrapartum service. In the 1990 s, with sparse cesarean section coverage, more mothers were obliged to travel to referral centres, until an eventual closure of the intrapartum care service in 2001.
Bella Bella provided safe and comprehensive maternity care until, in the context of an insufficient supply of family medicine generalists trained in anesthesia, surgery, and maternity care, the service closed.
It is generally understood that the teeth of pre-school-aged children are healthy, but the improvement in the dmft index has halted in the industrialized countries. Those few children who have caries have more of it than before. Little is known of the family-related factors which are associated with this polarization of caries. A representative population-based sample consisted of 1443 mothers expecting their first child. The children were followed at well-baby clinics and public dental health clinics for over five years. The objective was to study the prevalence of dental caries and its predictors in five-year-old children and to assess children's own dental health habits and the meaning of family-related factors in dental health. The findings were based on questionnaire data from parents and on clinical dental examinations of the five-year-old children as completed by 101 public health dentists. In firstborn five-year-old children, dental health was found to be good in 72%, fair in 20%, and poor in 8% of the cases. The final multivariate analysis illustrated that the dmft index > 0 was independently associated with the mother's irregular toothbrushing (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5), annual occurrence of several carious teeth in the father (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.9-3.6), daily sugar consumption at the age of 18 months (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.1), occurrence of child's headaches (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.5-8.8), parents' cohabitation (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.5-7.6), rural domicile (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and mother's young age (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.3-19.8). The findings indicated that attention should be paid not only to the child's dental health care but also to that of the whole family. Parents should be supported in their upbringing efforts and encouraged to improve their children's dental health habits. In everyday life, parents function as role models for their children, and therefore, parents' own dental hygiene habits are very meaningful.
BACKGROUND: Routine pretransfusion testing for red cell alloantibodies (RBCab) in cesarean patients is standard practice in many obstetric centers. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of this test. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted using computerized registers to extract data on blood transfusions and the occurrence of RBCab in cesarean patients. RESULTS: A total of 4434 admissions for cesarean section were identified. Only 10 patients (0.23%) had clinically significant RBCab, which had not been previously detected. Blood transfusions were required in relation to 147 cesarean sections (3.3%). A number of preoperative conditions, traditionally believed to be risk factors for preoperative and postpartum hemorrhage, occurred more frequently in transfused patients than in nontransfused. The probability of a cesarean patient having a previously undetected clinically significant RBCab and receiving a blood transfusion during admission for delivery was estimated to be 9.0 x 10(-5) (1 in 11 050 cesarean sections). Analyses of the time relationships between cesarean sections and initiation of blood transfusions indicated that most often there would be enough time for postoperative antibody screening and/or cross matching if the routine pretransfusion testing was omitted. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that routine pretransfusion testing in cesarean patients can be omitted.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate first-time mothers' views about antenatal childbirth and parenthood education and their contact with other class participants after birth, and to compare participants and non-participants with respect to the use of pain relief, experience of pain, mode of delivery, childbirth overall, duration of breastfeeding, and assessment of parental skills. METHODS: A national cohort of 1197 Swedish-speaking women completed three questionnaires: during early pregnancy, 2 months, and 1 year after giving birth. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of first-time mothers stated that antenatal education helped prepare them for childbirth, and 40% for early parenthood. One year after giving birth, 58% of the mothers had met with other class participants. These outcomes were associated with the number of class sessions. When controlling for the selection of women into participants and non-participants, no statistical differences were found concerning memory of labor pain, mode of delivery, overall birth experience, duration of breastfeeding, and assessment of parental skills. However, participants had a higher rate of epidural analgesia. Mothers who were young, single, with low level of education, living in a small city, and smokers were less likely to find the classes helpful. CONCLUSION: Participation in childbirth and parenthood education classes did not seem to affect first-time mothers' experience of childbirth and assessment of parental skills, but expanded their social network of new parents. The higher epidural rate suggests that participation in classes made women more aware of pain relief techniques available, rather than improving their own coping with pain. More research should focus on current forms of antenatal education, with special focus on women of low socioeconomic status.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the utilization of health care services, based on number of outpatient visits and readmissions, by mothers and newborns following discharge postnatally after having received various types of maternity care. DESIGN: The design was a cohort of Swedish women giving birth at full term. All together, 773 women and 782 newborns were followed using questionnaires, registry data, and medical chart notes. The information served as a basis for analyzing utilization of health care services during the first 28 days post-delivery. RESULTS: Of the women, 15% sought medical care and 1.7% were readmitted, whereas 17% of the newborns received medical care and 2.9% were readmitted. At 6 months, about half were exclusively being breastfed. There was no difference in need to seek health care or breastfeeding outcome owing to type of maternity care. CONCLUSION: Mothers with newborns sought care relatively frequently but rarely needed to be readmitted after discharge from the maternity care. The risk of readmission during the first month after childbirth was not greater for mothers and children who received care through the family suite or early discharge programs.
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual women undertake parenting in a social context that may be associated with unique risk factors for perinatal depression. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the mental health services used by women in the perinatal period and to identify potential correlates of mental health service use. Sixty-four women who were currently trying to conceive, pregnant, or the parent of a child less than one year of age were included. One-third of women reported some mental health service use within the past year; 30.6% of women reported a perceived unmet need for mental health services in the past year, with 40% of these women citing financial barriers as the reason for their unmet need. Women who were trying to get pregnant or who were less "out" were most likely to have had recent mental health service use. Women who had conceived by having sex with a man or who reported more than three episodes of discrimination were most likely to report unmet needs for mental health services. Providers may benefit from additional knowledge about the LBG social context that is relevant to perinatal health, and from identifying a strong referral network of skilled and affordable counsellors.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the course of pregnancy and delivery and the use of maternal healthcare after IVF. METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all women who had undergone IVF treatment in Northern Finland leading to delivery in 1990-1995 (n = 225) and control pregnancies derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (n = 671) matched for sex of the child, year of birth, area, maternal age, parity, social class and fetal plurality. The analyses were stratified by plurality. Outcome measures were pregnancy complications, mode of delivery, gestational length and the level of use of antenatal care. RESULTS: The results showed an increased risk for vaginal bleeding throughout pregnancy [relative risk (RR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-6.7 for singletons; RR 6.9, 95% CI 2.5-19.2 for twins], threatened preterm birth (RR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9, singletons) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (RR 3.8, 95% CI 1.0-15.0, singletons) in IVF pregnancies, as well as an increase in the use of specialized antenatal care. CONCLUSIONS: IVF pregnancies following standard, fresh ova IVF treatments are at greater risk of obstetric problems than spontaneously conceived pregnancies, and hence IVF mothers use more specialized antenatal care than others. The pregnancy complications after IVF are likely to be due to maternal characteristics regarding infertility and to a high incidence of multiple pregnancies.
OBJECTIVE: To determine geographic variation in urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) rates of infant mortality, low birth weight, prenatal care use, and maternal-child health care service availability. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the 1989 to 1991 birth-death linked database from the National Center for Health Statistics. We examined births from metropolitan areas with a minimum of 300 AI/AN births during the study period. Key outcomes of interest included rates of low birth weight, neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and women receiving inadequate prenatal care using the modified Kessner index. To determine the type of health services tailored to AI/AN mothers residing in these urban areas, we conducted a telephone survey of the 36 urban Indian health programs operating in 1997 using a semistructured survey. Items in the survey included questions about the availability of prenatal and infant health care. RESULTS: During the 1989 to 1991 study period, there were 72 730 singleton births to AI/AN mothers and/or fathers residing in urban areas, representing 49% of all AI/AN births in the United States. Overall 14.4% of urban AI/AN births were to women who received inadequate care during pregnancy, 5.7% of pregnancies resulted in low birth weight infants, and 11.0 infants died per 1000 live births. Death rates for the neonatal period (5.5 per 1000 births) and postneonatal period (5.4 per 1000 births) were similar. Marked disparity in these indicators exist between pregnancies to AI/AN and white women. Among the 54 metropolitan areas, 46 had a rate ratio (AI/AN: white) for inadequate care of > or =1.5 (range: 0.9-8.5). The mean rate ratios for neonatal and postneonatal mortality were 1.6 (range: 0.3-4.0) and 2.0 (range: 0.5-5.5). There was also considerable geographic variation of AI/AN mortality rates between metropolitan areas in all of the outcomes studied. All of the 20 metropolitan areas with the highest birth counts had some type of direct medical care or outreach services available from an urban clinic targeted toward AI/AN patients. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation also exists among rates of AI/ANs between metropolitan areas. Disparity exists in rates of perinatal outcomes between AI/ANs and whites living in the same metropolitan areas Although AI/AN urban health programs exist in most cities with large birth counts, it seems that many have inadequate resources to meet existing needs to improve perinatal outcomes and infant health.