In 1998, the Sustainable Development Working Group, a working group of the Arctic Council, established the Future of Children and Youth of the Arctic Initiative to improve the health and well-being of children and youth in the Arctic and to increase awareness and understanding of sustainable development. The initiative consists of two components: the Health Programme, which promotes the health and well-being of children and youth in the circumpolar Arctic; and the Networking Programme, which engages youth on issues of sustainable development, culture, and community.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to document the prevalence of maternal anxiety about food supply in Cree women who had 9-month-old infants, and to understand maternal and infant characteristics associated with anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: The design was descriptive and combined both cross-sectional and retrospective analyses. METHODS: The study took place in nine Cree communities in northern Quebec. Data on maternal characteristics in pregnancy (age, parity, anemia, smoking status) and infant characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, weight and hemoglobin concentration at 9 months old) were obtained from medical records. At 9 months postpartum, mothers were asked about infant feeding practices, the health of their infant, and the question, "Do you ever worry you don't have enough money to buy your children food to eat?" Affirmative responses were considered evidence for anxiety about food supply. Pricing data was collected for commercial baby food, formula, milk and water in the communities and, for comparison, in the large urban city of Montreal. RESULTS: 245 woman-infant pairs participated. One-fifth (20.8%) of mothers were anxious about food supply. The prevalences of anxiety in women who had anemia, or smoked, during pregnancy, or who bottle-fed their 9-month-old infants, were 44.4%, 27.5% and 24.0%, respectively. The corresponding prevalences of anxiety in women who did not have anemia, who did not smoke, or who breastfed without bottle-feeding at 9-months postpartum, were 19.0%, 13.6% and 6.7%. The adjusted ORs for anxiety were 3.10 (95% CI, 1.11-8.65), 2.12 (95% CI, 1.05-4.29) and 3.87 (95% CI, 1.12-13.36) for anemia, smoking and bottle-feeding, respectively. Prevalences of anemia and infection were comparable between infants of mothers who did and did not express anxiety. However, infants whose mothers had anemia during pregnancy had higher prevalences of anemia (44.0% vs. 24.6%, p = 0.04) and infection (77.8% vs. 50.2%, p = 0.03) at 9 months old. CONCLUSION: Women who had anxiety about food supply for their children had characteristics that distinguished them from women who did not have anxiety. Anxiety was associated with anemia and smoking during pregnancy, and with bottle-feeding at 9 months postpartum.
A pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention program for mothers of very low birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Thirty-three mothers of infants born weighing less than 1500 g.
A single-group, pretest-posttest design was used.
Preintervention mothers completed self-report questionnaires and their interaction with their infant was observed. Mothers then received the intervention program. Mothers were assessed twice postintervention, first when the infant was 1/2 months old and again at 6 months. At the postintervention assessments, mothers completed the same questionnaires and interaction was observed.
Mothers completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the revised Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the NICU Parental Beliefs Scale, and the Perinatal PTSD Questionnaire. Interactions between mothers and infants were rated by trained research staff using the Index of Parental Behaviour in the NICU. Postintervention mothers also responded to a questionnaire that assessed their perceptions of the intervention program.
It was feasible to enroll mothers because 62% of eligible mothers agreed to participate. However, 39% of mothers who enrolled withdrew. Most of the mothers who withdrew did so before even beginning the intervention, and many of these women were mothers of multiples. It was also feasible to provide the intervention because more than 80% of mothers who began the intervention received all 6 teaching sessions. Mothers found both the content and the format of the program to be acceptable. There were nonetheless several challenges in conducting an intervention study with mothers early in the NICU hospitalization.
The results of this pilot study are encouraging. It was found to be both feasible and acceptable to provide the intervention program to mothers during the NICU hospitalization. The effectiveness of this program needs to be assessed in a randomized controlled trial.
Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.
Both maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight have been implicated in impaired development of the retina.
To investigate the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in preadolescent children.
The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study is a prospective, population-based, birth cohort study that included all children (n?=?6090) born in 2000 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Maternal smoking data were collected through parental interviews. Birth weight, pregnancy, and medical history data were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. As a follow-up, the study performed eye examinations on 1406 of these children from May 1, 2011, to October 31, 2012, when the children were aged 11 or 12 years. The participants were predominantly (1296 [92.4%]) of European descent. Study data were analyzed from June 1, 2016, to October 1, 2016.
Peripapillary RNFL thickness measured using optical coherence tomography at the 11- or 12-year examination.
Of the 1406 children in the study, 1323 were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age was 11.7 [0.4] years; 633 [47.8%] were boys and 690 [52.2%] were girls). The mean (SD) RNFL thickness was 104?(9.6) µm. In 227 children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy, the peripapillary RNFL was 5.7 µm (95% CI, 4.3-7.1 µm; P?
We studied how attachment representations contribute to central components of transition to motherhood, prenatal emotion processing (EP) and emotional availability (EA) of mother-infant interaction, and whether there are group specific differences. Participants were 51 treatment-enrolled substance-abusing (SA) mothers and their infants and 50 non-using comparison dyads with obstetric risk. Mother's attachment representations (AAI) and EP were assessed prenatally and EA when infants were four months. Results showed that autonomous attachment only had a buffering effect on prenatal EP among comparisons. All SA mothers showed more dysfunctional EP than comparisons and, contrary to comparisons, autonomous SA mothers reported more negative cognitive appraisals and less meta-evaluation of emotions than dismissing SA mothers. Preoccupied SA mothers showed high negative cognitive appraisals, suggesting under-regulation of emotions. Attachment representations were not associated with EA in either group; rather, SA status contributed to global risk in the relationship. Surprisingly, autonomous SA mothers showed a tendency towards intrusiveness. We propose that obstetric risk among comparisons and adverse relational experiences among almost all SA mothers might override the protective role of mother's autonomous representations for dyadic interaction. We conclude that prenatal emotional turbulence and high interaction risk of all SA mothers calls for holistic treatment for the dyad.
AIM: To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. METHODS: We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. Exposure: baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). CONCLUSION: Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.
OBJECTIVE: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the number 1 cause of postneonatal infant death. Prone infant sleep position and maternal smoking have been established as risk factors for SIDS mortality. Some studies have found that bedsharing is associated with SIDS, but, to date, there is only strong evidence for a risk among infants of smoking mothers and some evidence of a risk among young infants of nonsmoking mothers. Despite the lack of convincing scientific evidence, bedsharing with nonsmoking mothers remains controversial. In some states, nonsmoking mothers are currently being told that they should not bedshare with their infants, and mothers of infants who died of SIDS are told that they caused the death of their infant because they bedshared. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between maternal smoking and bedsharing among Oregon mothers to explore whether smoking mothers, in contrast to nonsmoking mothers, are getting the message that they should not bedshare. METHODS: Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System surveys a stratified random sample, drawn from birth certificates, of women after a live birth. Hispanic and non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskan Native women, and non-Hispanic white women with low birth weight infants are oversampled to ensure sufficient numbers for stratified analysis. The sample then was weighted to reflect Oregon's population. In 1998-1999, 1867 women completed the survey (73.5% weighted response). The median time from birth to completion of the survey was 4 months. Women were asked whether they shared a bed with their infant "always," "almost always," "sometimes," or "never." Frequent bedsharing was defined as "always" or "almost always"; infrequent was defined as "sometimes" or "never." RESULTS: Of all new mothers, 35.2% reported bedsharing frequently (always: 20.5%; almost always: 14.7%) and 64.8% infrequently (sometimes: 41.4%; never: 23.4%). Bedsharing among postpartum smoking mothers was 18.8% always, 12.6% almost always, 45.1% sometimes, and 23.6% never; this was not statistically different from among nonsmoking mothers. Results for prenatal smokers were similar. When stratified by race/ethnicity, there was no association between smoking and bedsharing in any racial or ethnic group. In univariable and multivariable logistic regression, there were no statistical differences in frequent or any bedsharing among either prenatal or postpartum smoking mothers compared with nonsmokers; the adjusted odds ratio for postpartum smokers who frequently bedshared was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-1.25) and for any bedsharing was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.57-1.94). Results for prenatal smoking were similar. This is the first US population-based study to look at the prevalence of bedsharing among smoking and nonsmoking mothers. Bedsharing is common in Oregon, with 35.2% of mothers in Oregon reporting frequently bedsharing and an additional 41.4% sometimes bedsharing. There was no significant association between smoking and bedsharing for either prenatal or postpartum smokers among any racial or ethnic group. Smoking mothers were as likely to bedshare as nonsmoking mothers. The frequency of bedsharing in Oregon was similar to estimates from other sources. Our study has the advantage of being a population-based sample drawn from birth certificates, weighted for nonresponse. CONCLUSIONS: Although a number of case series have raised concerns about the safety of mother-infant bedsharing, even among nonsmoking mothers, this has not yet been confirmed by careful, controlled studies. There have been 9 large-scale case-control studies of the relationship between bedsharing and SIDS. Three case-control studies did not stratify by maternal smoking status, but found no increased risk for SIDS. Six case control studies reported results stratified by maternal smoking status: 1 study, while asserting an association, provided an unexplained range of univariable odds ratios without CIs; 3 found no increased risk for older infants of nonsmoking mothers; and 2 found a risk only for infants
Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of variables from the Health Belief Model and the Protection Motivation Theory. A written questionnaire was completed by 1129 Dutch mothers of pre-school children. Most safety measures were explained (rather) well by the same set of determinants. Main determinants for adopting or not adopting a safety measure were the mother's belief in the necessity of the safety measure according to the child's age, her belief about her partner's opinion on the necessity and her belief about the success of taking the measure. Subsequent important determinants were the mother's belief about the inconvenience and instrumentality of the safety measure; the perceived susceptibility had a minor or moderate influence on most measures. This study did not indicate that more highly educated mothers were more knowledgeable about safety-related subjects. The theoretical implications of this study are discussed.