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450K epigenome-wide scan identifies differential DNA methylation in newborns related to maternal smoking during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122072
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1425-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Bonnie R Joubert
Siri E Håberg
Roy M Nilsen
Xuting Wang
Stein E Vollset
Susan K Murphy
Zhiqing Huang
Cathrine Hoyo
Øivind Midttun
Lea A Cupul-Uicab
Per M Ueland
Michael C Wu
Wenche Nystad
Douglas A Bell
Shyamal D Peddada
Stephanie J London
Author Affiliation
Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1425-31
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors - genetics - metabolism
Biological Markers - blood
Chromatography, Liquid
Cohort Studies
Cotinine - blood
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - genetics - metabolism
DNA Methylation
DNA-Binding Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Epigenesis, Genetic
Female
Fetal Blood
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology - genetics
Repressor Proteins - genetics - metabolism
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Transcription Factors - genetics - metabolism
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, due to in utero exposures may play a critical role in early programming for childhood and adult illness. Maternal smoking is a major risk factor for multiple adverse health outcomes in children, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
We investigated epigenome-wide methylation in cord blood of newborns in relation to maternal smoking during pregnancy.
We examined maternal plasma cotinine (an objective biomarker of smoking) measured during pregnancy in relation to DNA methylation at 473,844 CpG sites (CpGs) in 1,062 newborn cord blood samples from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (450K).
We found differential DNA methylation at epigenome-wide statistical significance (p-value
Notes
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PubMed ID
22851337 View in PubMed
Less detail

The abundance of health-associated bacteria is altered in PAH polluted soils-Implications for health in urban areas?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287930
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187852
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Anirudra Parajuli
Mira Grönroos
Sari Kauppi
Tomasz Plociniczak
Marja I Roslund
Polina Galitskaya
Olli H Laitinen
Heikki Hyöty
Ari Jumpponen
Rauni Strömmer
Martin Romantschuk
Nan Hui
Aki Sinkkonen
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(11):e0187852
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Finland
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - analysis
Soil Microbiology
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
Long-term exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been connected to chronic human health disorders. It is also well-known that i) PAH contamination alters soil bacterial communities, ii) human microbiome is associated with environmental microbiome, and iii) alteration in the abundance of members in several bacterial phyla is associated with adverse or beneficial human health effects. We hypothesized that soil pollution by PAHs altered soil bacterial communities that had known associations with human health. The rationale behind our study was to increase understanding and potentially facilitate reconsidering factors that lead to health disorders in areas characterized by PAH contamination. Large containers filled with either spruce forest soil, pine forest soil, peat, or glacial sand were left to incubate or contaminated with creosote. Biological degradation of PAHs was monitored using GC-MS, and the bacterial community composition was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing. Proteobacteria had higher and Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes had lower relative abundance in creosote contaminated soils than in non-contaminated soils. Earlier studies have demonstrated that an increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased abundance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes are particularly associated with adverse health outcomes and immunological disorders. Therefore, we propose that pollution-induced shifts in natural soil bacterial community, like in PAH-polluted areas, can contribute to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We encourage studies that simultaneously address the classic "adverse toxin effect" paradigm and our novel "altered environmental microbiome" hypothesis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29145477 View in PubMed
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Acrylfentanyl: Another new psychoactive drug with fatal consequences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292003
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2017 Aug; 277:e21-e29
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2017
Author
Davide Guerrieri
Emma Rapp
Markus Roman
Gunilla Thelander
Robert Kronstrand
Author Affiliation
Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board of Forensic Medicine, 58758 Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address: davide.guerrieri@rmv.se.
Source
Forensic Sci Int. 2017 Aug; 277:e21-e29
Date
Aug-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Administration, Oral
Adolescent
Adult
Analgesics, Opioid - administration & dosage - blood - poisoning
Chromatography, Liquid
Drug Overdose
Female
Fentanyl - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood - poisoning
Forensic Toxicology
Humans
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Middle Aged
Nasal Sprays
Opioid-Related Disorders - blood - mortality
Street Drugs - blood - poisoning
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The European Nordic Countries are the most exposed to opioid-related deaths. Between April and October 2016, a series of forty lethal intoxications occurred in Sweden, in which the presence of the synthetic opioid acrylfentanyl was determined to be the main - or a contributing - cause of death. In the reported cases, the blood concentration of acrylfentanyl - mostly detected in combination with other drugs - ranged from 0.01ng/g to 5ng/g; victims were predominantly males (34 males and 6 females), and their age varied between 18 and 53 years. We further describe five cases, representative of the different drug administration route (nasal spray, tablets) and intentions (accidental or voluntary intoxication). Moreover, we address nine cases of non-lethal intoxication, in single (8 cases) or polydrug scenario (1 case). We discuss the present characteristics of the Swedish drug market for fentanyl-analogs in general and acrylfentanyl in particular, reporting a structural difficulty to effectively counteracting the appearance of unscheduled substances due to the constant turnover of new molecules on the recreational drug market.
PubMed ID
28587915 View in PubMed
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Adverse events related to the new psychoactive substance 3-fluorophenmetrazine - results from the Swedish STRIDA project.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280619
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016 Nov;54(9):819-825
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Matilda Bäckberg
Jenny Westerbergh
Olof Beck
Anders Helander
Source
Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016 Nov;54(9):819-825
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chromatography, Liquid - methods
Emergency Service, Hospital
Female
Humans
Intensive Care Units
Male
Mass Spectrometry - methods
Middle Aged
Phenmetrazine - analogs & derivatives - blood - poisoning - urine
Psychotropic Drugs - blood - poisoning - urine
Retrospective Studies
Severity of Illness Index
Street Drugs - blood - poisoning - urine
Substance Abuse Detection - methods
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are often poorly pharmacologically documented and the production is unregulated, implying high risks for toxic side effects. This report from the STRIDA project describes analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxications involving the phenmetrazine analogue 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM).
Observational case series of patients with suspected acute NPS exposure requiring hospital care. Blood and urine samples were collected from patients presenting in emergency departments (ED) or intensive care units (ICU), after consultation with the Swedish Poisons Information Centre (PIC). Laboratory analysis was performed by multi-component liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clinical data were collected during PIC consultations and retrieved from medical records.
From November 2014 to October 2015, eight cases were registered as 3-FPM or "phenmetrazine" intoxications at the PIC after consultation. During the same period, analysis of STRIDA project samples confirmed 3-FPM use in a total of 19 patients (84% men) aged 22-54 (median 30) years. 3-FPM was detected in 15 out of 19 serum (2.7-1416?ng/mL) and in 14 out of 14 urine (1.0-6857?µg/mmol creatinine) samples. All patients were also tested positive for other psychoactive substances, with benzodiazepines being most common (57% of the cases). Ten patients were monitored in the ED for
PubMed ID
27491700 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-associated tyrosine nitration of rat skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b: characterization by HPLC-nanoelectrospray-tandem mass spectrometry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82459
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2006 Apr;41(4):407-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2006
Author
Sharov Victor S
Galeva Nadezhda A
Kanski Jaroslaw
Williams Todd D
Schöneich Christian
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, 2095 Constant Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA.
Source
Exp Gerontol. 2006 Apr;41(4):407-16
Date
Apr-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aging - metabolism
Animals
Base Sequence
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Form - analysis - genetics - metabolism
Longevity
Molecular Sequence Data
Muscle, Skeletal - metabolism
Peroxynitrous Acid
Rats
Rats, Inbred BN
Rats, Inbred F344
Sequence Alignment
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Tyrosine - analogs & derivatives - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
We identified age-dependent post-translational modifications of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (Ph-b), isolated from F1 hybrids of Fisher 344 x Brown Norway rats. Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats showed a statistically significant decrease in specific activity compared to 6 months old animals: 13.8+/-0.7 vs. 20.6+/-0.8 U mg(-1) protein, respectively. Western blot analysis of the purified Ph-b with anti-3-NT antibodies revealed an age-dependent accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), quantified by reverse-phase HPLC-UV analysis to increase from 0.05+/-0.03 to 0.34+/-0.11 (mol 3-NT/mol Ph-b) for 6 vs. 34 months old rats, respectively. HPLC-nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry revealed the accumulation of 3-NT on Tyr113, Tyr161 and Tyr573. While nitration of Tyr113 was detected for both young and old rats, 3-NT at positions 161 and 573 was identified only for Ph-b isolated from 34 months old rats. The sequence of the rat muscle Ph-b was corrected based on our protein sequence mapping and a custom rat PHS2 sequence containing 17 differently located amino acid residues was used instead of the database sequence. The in vitro reaction of peroxynitrite with Ph-b resulted in the nitration of multiple Tyr residues at positions 51, 52, 113, 155, 185, 203, 262, 280, 404, 473, 731, and 732. Thus, the in vitro nitration conditions only mimic the nitration of a single Tyr residue observed in vivo suggesting alternative pathways controlling the accumulation of 3-NT in vivo. Our data show a correlation of age-dependent 3-NT accumulation with Ph-b inactivation.
PubMed ID
16616821 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-based differences in hair zinc of Vancouver preschoolers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155088
Source
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008 Dec;126 Suppl 1:S21-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Ziba Vaghri
Susan Barr
Hubert Wong
Gwen Chapman
Clyde Hertzman
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Land and Food Systems, Food, Nutrition and Health, University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. ziba.vaghri@ubc.ca
Source
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2008 Dec;126 Suppl 1:S21-30
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Anthropometry
Body Height
Body Weight
British Columbia
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Sex Factors
Zinc - analysis
Abstract
Marginal zinc deficiency (MZD), the subclinical stage of zinc deficiency, is common in industrialized societies. Serum zinc, the most common biomarker of zinc status, lacks sensitivity and specificity to diagnose this deficiency. Hair zinc, however, is sensitive and specific enough to detect MZD in children. Differences in hair zinc associated with age and sex have been reported. These differences have not been investigated thoroughly; therefore, interpretation of the results of hair analyses is difficult. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the hair zinc status of a group of Vancouver preschoolers (24-71 months) and assess the age- and sex-based differences in their hair zinc. Hair samples were obtained (n = 719) and analyzed for zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results indicated a mean hair zinc of 115 +/- 43 microg/g with 17% below the low hair zinc cutoff (70 microg/g). Boys and girls had comparable mean hair zinc, while girls had a significantly higher occurrence of low hair zinc than boys (21% vs. 12%). Children or =4. Our study provides important reference values for the hair zinc of healthy North American preschoolers.
PubMed ID
18806933 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-related variation in red blood cell stable isotope ratios (delta13C and delta15N) from two Yupik villages in southwest Alaska: a pilot study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77980
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Feb;66(1):31-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Wilkinson Michael J
Yai Youlim
O'Brien Diane M
Author Affiliation
Center for Alaska Native Health Research, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks 99775-7000, USA.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2007 Feb;66(1):31-41
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alaska
Biological Markers - blood
Carbon Isotopes - blood
Diet Surveys
Dietary Fats - analysis
Erythrocytes - radionuclide imaging
Female
Food Analysis - methods
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Preservation
Humans
Inuits
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Isotopes - blood
Pilot Projects
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: A significant fraction of the Alaska Native population appears to be shifting from a primarily subsistence-based diet to a market-based diet; therefore, the ability to link diet pattern to disease risk has become increasingly important to predicting public health needs. Our research aims to develop the use of stable isotope ratios as diet pattern biomarkers, based on naturally-occurring isotopic differences in the elemental composition of subsistence and non-subsistence foods. These differences are reflected in human blood, hair and fingernail isotope signatures. STUDY DESIGN: In this preliminary study, we investigate the potential for 13C and 15N to serve as dietary biomarkers for age-related dietary differences in a subset of participants involved with a long-term study initiated by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research (CANHR) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). METHODS: We measured delta13C and delta15N in red blood cells collected from 12 "elder" participants (age 60+ yrs) and 14 younger participants (age 14-19 yrs). Samples were evenly divided between males and females, and between two villages sampled in 2004. We also sampled market and subsistence foods in Fairbanks, AK, as an indicator of the isotopic differences likely to be observed in village foods. RESULTS: Elders were significantly enriched in 15N, but depleted in 13C, relative to younger participants. These differences are consistent with increased intake of marine subsistence in elders, and of certain market foods in younger participants. However, elders were considerably more variable in delta15N, suggesting greater differences among individuals in their usual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Overall we find that RBC stable isotope signatures exhibit variation consistent with previously documented dietary patterns in Alaska Natives, and we describe future directions for developing these biomarkers for diet pattern monitoring.
PubMed ID
17451132 View in PubMed
Less detail

Aggregation and catabolism of disease-associated intra-Abeta mutations: reduced proteolysis of AbetaA21G by neprilysin.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156321
Source
Neurobiol Dis. 2008 Sep;31(3):442-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Vicki Betts
Malcolm A Leissring
Georgia Dolios
Rong Wang
Dennis J Selkoe
Dominic M Walsh
Author Affiliation
Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Research, The Conway Institute for Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Republic of Ireland.
Source
Neurobiol Dis. 2008 Sep;31(3):442-50
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alzheimer Disease - genetics - metabolism - physiopathology
Amino Acid Sequence - genetics
Amino Acid Substitution - genetics
Amyloid beta-Peptides - chemistry - genetics - metabolism
Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor - chemistry - genetics - metabolism
Brain Chemistry - genetics
Fibrinolysin - chemistry - metabolism
Humans
Insulysin - chemistry - metabolism
Mass Spectrometry
Mutation - genetics
Neprilysin - chemistry - metabolism
Peptide Fragments - chemistry - genetics - metabolism
Peptide Hydrolases - metabolism
Plaque, Amyloid - chemistry - metabolism
Protein Structure, Tertiary - genetics
Abstract
Five point mutations within the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) sequence of the APP gene are associated with hereditary diseases which are similar or identical to Alzheimer's disease and encode: the A21G (Flemish), E22G (Arctic), E22K (Italian), E22Q (Dutch) and the D23N (Iowa) amino acid substitutions. Although a substantial body of data exists on the effects of these mutations on Abeta production, whether or not intra-Abeta mutations alter degradation and how this relates to their aggregation state remain unclear. Here we report that the E22G, E22Q and the D23N substitutions significantly increase fibril nucleation and extension, whereas the E22K substitution exhibits only an increased rate of extension and the A21G substitution actually causes a decrease in the extension rate. These substantial differences in aggregation together with our observation that aggregated wild type Abeta(1-40) was much less well degraded than monomeric wild type Abeta(1-40), prompted us to assess whether or not disease-associated intra-Abeta mutations alter proteolysis independent of their effects on aggregation. Neprilysin (NEP), insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and plasmin play a major role in Abeta catabolism, therefore we compared the ability of these enzymes to degrade wild type and mutant monomeric Abeta peptides. Experiments investigating proteolysis revealed that all monomeric peptides are degraded similarly by IDE and plasmin, but that the Flemish peptide was degraded significantly more slowly by NEP than wild type Abeta or any of the other mutant peptides. This finding suggests that resistance to NEP-mediated proteolysis may underlie the pathogenicity associated with the A21G mutation.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18602473 View in PubMed
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Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate in a Danish cohort of 259 selected patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature178320
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2004 Aug;51(2):79-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2004
Author
Anne Lerbaek
Suresh Chandra Rastogi
Torkil Menné
Author Affiliation
The National Allergy Research Centre, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. annsor@gentoftehosp.kbhamt.dk
Source
Contact Dermatitis. 2004 Aug;51(2):79-83
Date
Aug-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact - etiology
Dermatitis, Occupational - etiology
Female
Food Handling
Food Preservatives - adverse effects
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Isothiocyanates - adverse effects
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
Allyl isothiocyanate is present in many plants. Allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate is well known but infrequently reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to allyl isothiocyanate in patients with suspected contact dermatitis from vegetables and food. 259 such patients were tested at the Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2003. Only 2 patients (0.8%) had a positive reaction (+) to allyl isothiocyanate and 43 patients (16.6%) had a ?+ reaction. One of the patients with a positive reaction provided samples of margarine, salad cream, oil and mayonnaise. These were analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography, and a moderate concentration of allyl isothiocyanate (2.5 ppm) was detected in the sample of margarine. This patient was a professional sandwich maker presenting with fingertip dermatitis mimicking 'tulip fingers' or allergic contact dermatitis from garlic and onions. In conclusion, allergic contact dermatitis from allyl isothiocyanate occurs in only a limited number of cases, despite frequent exposure. The large number of ?+ reactions raises the question as to whether the recommended patch test concentration is too low.
PubMed ID
15373848 View in PubMed
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Alternaria toxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in grain foods in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119610
Source
Mycotoxin Res. 2012 Nov;28(4):261-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Peter M Scott
Wendy Zhao
Sherry Feng
Benjamin P-Y Lau
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Food Research Division, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 Canada. Peter_Scott@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Mycotoxin Res. 2012 Nov;28(4):261-6
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alternaria - chemistry
Canada
Cereals - chemistry
Chromatography, Liquid
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant Food - analysis
Lactones - analysis
Limit of Detection
Methanol
Solid Phase Extraction
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Abstract
Alternaria alternata has been reported to be the most common fungus on Canadian Western wheat. The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are mutagenic in vitro and there is also limited evidence for carcinogenic properties. They have been found in wheat from Europe, Argentina, China and Australia, but they have not been looked for in Canadian grains or grain foods. In the present study, 83 samples of grain-based food sold in Canada, including flour, bran, breakfast cereals, infant cereals and bread, were analysed for AOH and AME using extraction with methanol, clean-up on combined aminopropyl/C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and liquid chromatography (LC) with tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) determination. The overall average recoveries of AOH and AME from a variety of spiked cereal foods (n?=?13) were 45?±?9% and 53?±?9%, which could be attributed mainly to MS matrix effects The instrumental limits of detection (LOD) were 0.34 ng/g and 0.13 ng/g for AOH and AME, respectively, and the instrumental limits of quantitation (LOQ) were 1.1 and 0.43 ng/g. Of 83 samples analysed, 70 were positive for AOH (up to 63 ng/g, in a soft wheat bran) and 64 contained AME (up to 12 ng/g in a bran-based breakfast cereal). Of particular interest was the presence of AOH and/or AME in 27 out of 30 infant foods (up to 4.4 ng/g and 9.0 ng/g, respectively, in a sample of multigrain cereal).
Notes
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PubMed ID
23087499 View in PubMed
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