In the 1970s, men in northern Sweden had among the highest prevalences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) worldwide. An intervention program combining population- and individual-oriented activities was initiated in 1985. Concurrently, collection of information on medical risk factors, lifestyle and anthropometry started. Today, these data make up one of the largest databases in the world on diet intake in a population-based sample, both in terms of sample size and follow-up period. The study examines trends in food and nutrient intake, serum cholesterol and body mass index (BMI) from 1986 to 2010 in northern Sweden.
Cross-sectional information on self-reported food and nutrient intake and measured body weight, height, and serum cholesterol were compiled for over 140,000 observations. Trends and trend breaks over the 25-year period were evaluated for energy-providing nutrients, foods contributing to fat intake, serum cholesterol and BMI.
Reported intake of fat exhibited two significant trend breaks in both sexes: a decrease between 1986 and 1992 and an increase from 2002 (women) or 2004 (men). A reverse trend was noted for carbohydrates, whereas protein intake remained unchanged during the 25-year period. Significant trend breaks in intake of foods contributing to total fat intake were seen. Reported intake of wine increased sharply for both sexes (more so for women) and export beer increased for men. BMI increased continuously for both sexes, whereas serum cholesterol levels decreased during 1986 - 2004, remained unchanged until 2007 and then began to rise. The increase in serum cholesterol coincided with the increase in fat intake, especially with intake of saturated fat and fats for spreading on bread and cooking.
Men and women in northern Sweden decreased their reported fat intake in the first 7 years (1986-1992) of an intervention program. After 2004 fat intake increased sharply for both genders, which coincided with introduction of a positive media support for low carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diet. The decrease and following increase in cholesterol levels occurred simultaneously with the time trends in food selection, whereas a constant increase in BMI remained unaltered. These changes in risk factors may have important effects on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).
Cites: Scand J Public Health Suppl. 2003;61:18-2414660243
Alzheimer's disease is growing in incidence and prevalence in the developed world. Rates have been increasing as populations have been aging. There are still many unknowns regarding prevention, causes, and treatments. The purpose of this article is to analyze the portrayal of Alzheimer's in the highest-circulation mass print English-language magazines published in the United States and Canada over a period of a decade, specifically those for 1991, 1996, and 2001. This research investigates the portrayal of persons with Alzheimer's, the disease itself, caregivers and experts, and the dominant frames or discourses within which Alzheimer's is described. Twenty-five articles from the highest-circulation mass print magazines available in Canada were studied through qualitative and inductive research of both manifest and latent content. One of the most notable findings is the absence of the person with the disease as a person with a voice, with needs and desires. When the disease itself is described it is characterized as fearsome, relentless, and aggressive. Both the unquestioned duty of the individual caregiver and his or her (usually the caregiver is a woman) suffering are emphasized. The disease, its diagnosis, and potential treatments are framed almost exclusively within a medical rather than a political-economy or lifestyle frame. Minimal attention is paid to prevention, early stages of the disease, social support, options for care, or other alternative understandings of issues related to Alzheimer's. The theoretical and practical significance of these findings is considered.
This study investigated how media coverage has portrayed diabetes as newsworthy.
The quantitative component involved tabulating diabetes coverage in 2 major Canadian newspapers, 1988-2001 and 1991-2001. The qualitative component focused on high-profile coverage in 2 major US magazines and 2 major Canadian newspapers, 1998-2000.
Although coverage did not consistently increase, the quantitative results suggest an emphasis on linking diabetes with heart disease and mortality to convey its seriousness. The qualitative component identified 3 main ways of portraying type 2 diabetes: as an insidious problem, as a problem associated with particular populations, and as a medical problem.
Overall, the results suggest that when communicating with journalists, researchers and advocates have stressed that diabetes maims and kills. Yet even when media coverage acknowledged societal forces and circumstances as causes, the proposed remedies did not always include or stress modifications to social contexts. Neither the societal causes of public health problems nor possible societal remedies automatically received attention from researchers or from journalists. Skilled advocacy is needed to put societal causes and solutions on public agendas.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to detect how a leading news paper, the Land Lantbruk in Stockholm, Sweden, informs the public and specifically the rural sector in Sweden and the Scandinavian countries concerning injury events (farm-related injury event) and the use of injury prevention and control. Injury reporting in the Land Lantbruk has been studied from the point of injury prevention and control. A study of injury prevention and rural health and safety in Australia shows that the newspaper The Land that serves Australia's rural community should 'be an under-utilised vehicle for news and commentary on rural health and safety issues'. DESIGN: The study period was from January 2000 to February 2005. A total of 178 articles were reviewed and analysed. The articles were available on a newspaper database in the Land Lantbruk newspaper. Articles that addressed farm-related injury event and rural health and safety were chosen and organised into subgroups. RESULTS: Tractor and motor vehicle safety (35%) was most common among the injury reporting. Although the newspaper Land Lantbruk provided excellent coverage of the causes of these events, the reports tended to focus on circumstances and did not provide information on injury prevention or the advantages of also coverage of the social and psychosocial long-term consequences of accidents. CONCLUSION: In the prevention work of reducing farm-related injuries in the rural sector in the Scandinavian countries and decreasing the human suffering represented by this health problem, rural politicians, insurance companies, rural authorities and also handicap organisations should listen more to the injured individuals and their own experiences relative to the difficulty of life after an accident. The reaction of family and relatives, and experiences of the long-term social consequences, have not been included in the media coverage. Journalists at the Land Lantbruk could also share experiences of the Swedish coverage of rural health and safety from Australian journalists from The Land.
Comment In: Aust J Rural Health. 2006 Dec;14(6):24317121501
While much is known about the impact of law and public policy, we know considerably less about their antecedents. Theories of policy adoption suggest that a variety of policy inputs help to shape legislative change. This research considers the enactment of municipal smoking bylaws in Canada between 1970 and 1995. The emergence of second-hand smoke (SHS) has been offered as a viable explanation for the increased enactment of local smoking restrictions. A number of indicators confirm the rising public health concern around SHS. Using Health Canada data on municipal smoking bylaw enactment in Canada, this paper employs an event history analysis to trace the role of four indicators of the increased recognition of SHS as a public health concern-scientific research, parliamentary debate, print media, and health advocacy. Findings indicate that the print media and health advocacy play the strongest role in explaining the increase in the adoption of municipal smoking bylaws in Canada. Results lend support to the quantitative study of the policy adoption process and to theories of policy making that consider multiple influences on policy adoption.
Five variables were investigated in the evaluation of Suicide Prevention Weeks (SPW) held in 1999, 2000, and 2001 in Québec, Canada: exposure to the campaign, previous suicide ideation, knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. After the year 2000 campaign, a telephone survey conducted on a representative sample of 1020 men revealed that only those actually exposed to the SPW had gained more knowledge of suicide facts and resources. However, the SPW did not influence attitudes or intentions to seek help. Results are not surprising, considering the low intensity of the campaign, especially in the media. Campaigns aimed at changing suicidal behaviors must be intensive.